- Research article
- Open Access
Enhanced recombinant protein production and differential expression of molecular chaperones in sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells after baculovirus infection
© Lai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
- Received: 22 June 2012
- Accepted: 4 November 2012
- Published: 7 November 2012
There are few studies that have examined the potential of RNA inference (RNAi) to increase protein production in the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) (Sf)-caspase-1-repressed stable cells exhibit resistance to apoptosis and enhancement of recombinant protein production. However, the mechanism of recombinant protein augmentation in baculovirus-infected Caspase-repressed insect cells has not been elucidated.
In the current study, we utilized RNAi-mediated Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells to clarify how the resistance to apoptosis can enhance both intracellular (firefly luciferase) and extracellular (secreted alkaline phosphatase [SEAP]) recombinant protein production in BEVS. Since the expression of molecular chaperones is strongly associated with the maximal production of exogenous proteins in BEVS, the differential expression of molecular chaperones in baculovirus-infected stable cells was also analyzed in this study.
The data indicated that the retention of expression of molecular chaperones in baculovirus-infected Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells give the higher recombinant protein accumulation.
- RNA interference
Programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis, is a normal physiological cell suicide program that is highly conserved among vertebrates and invertebrates [1, 2]. Apoptotic cells undergo a series of dramatic and characteristic alterations in cellular morphology, such as DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, cytoskeleton reorganization, and plasma membrane blebbing . Apoptosis plays an important role during development and tissue homeostasis eliminating discarded cells from the organism, including damaged and virus-infected cells. For this reason, apoptosis acts as a host protection mechanism by which virus-infected cells are removed to limit the proliferation of viruses [4, 5]. Thus, to overcome this defense response in cells, baculoviruses carry anti-apoptotic genes to inhibit programmed cell death [6–8].
The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is a powerful tool used for the expression of foreign proteins in numerous insect cells, including Sf9, Sf21 cells and Trichoplusi ni cells [13–15]. Therefore, recombinant protein production using a BEVS can be used for many pharmaceutical applications [16–18].
Exposure of cells to stressors, including high temperatures or a wide variety of physical and chemical insults, induces the expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) in cells [19, 20]. HSPs are molecular chaperones responsible for maintaining cell homeostasis and promoting cell survival . Baculovirus infection also serves as a stress factor that can activate both death-inducing and cellular-protective pathways, and the heat-shock response is important for baculovirus replication in insect cells . Moreover, the rate-limited expression of endoplasmic reticular (ER) molecular chaperones is strongly associated with the maximal expression of exogenous proteins by BEVS .
Few studies have examined the potential of RNA inference (RNAi) to increase protein production in the BEVS [24, 25], however, several studies have demonstrated the efficiency of this approach in both insect cells and larvae [26, 27]. In our previous studies, we used DNA vector-based approaches with endogenously expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to silence its target gene, Sf-caspase-1, in Sf9 cells. Therefore, the Sf-caspase-1 mRNA level and plasmid copy number in the Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells were examined . In addition, Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells exhibited resistance to apoptosis and enhancement of recombinant protein production [25, 28]. These results were consistent with later findings in T. ni cells ; however, the mechanism of recombinant protein augmentation in baculovirus-infected Caspase-repressed insect cells was not determined. Therefore, in this present study, we use RNAi-mediated Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells to clarify how resistance to apoptosis could enhance both intracellular (firefly luciferase) and extracellular (secreted alkaline phosphatase [SEAP]) recombination protein production by BEVS. Furthermore, the differential expression of molecular chaperones in baculovirus-infected stable cells was also analyzed in this study.
Stable transfection plasmid verification by genomic DNA PCR and RT-PCR in Sf9/pIBdsCasp-1 and Sf9/pIBdsCasp-2 cells
Primers used in PCR and RT-PCR analyses
pIBdsCasp DNA, forward
pIBdsCasp DNA, reverse
Sf-β-actin DNA/mRNA, forward
Sf-β-actin DNA/mRNA, reverse
Sf-casp1 mRNA, forward
Sf-casp1 mRNA, reverse
atx1 mRNA, forward
atx1 mRNA, reverse
Cyclophilin A (CypA)
cypA mRNA, forward
cypA mRNA, reverse
Cyclophilin B (CypB)
cypB mRNA, forward
cypB mRNA, reverse
Heat shock cognate
hsc70 mRNA, forward
hsc70 mRNA, reverse
Heat shock protein
hsp90 mRNA, forward
hsp90 mRNA, reverse
calr mRNA, forward
calr mRNA, reverse
pdi mRNA, forward
pdi mRNA, reverse
Accumulated SEAP expression by Sf9/pIBdsCasp-1 and Sf9/pIBdsCasp-2 cells
Luciferase expression in Sf9/pIBdsCasp-1 and Sf9/pIBdsCasp-2 cells
SEAP expression at each day’s period in Sf9/pIBdsCasp-1 and Sf9/pIBdsCasp-2 cells
Expression of molecular chaperones in baculovirus-infected Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells
In this study, our data demonstrated that both intracellular (luciferase) and extracellular (SEAP) recombinant protein production in Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells was higher than that in normal insect cell after baculovirus infection (Figure 4 and 5). Although luciferase expression did not correlate with accumulated SEAP expression, it was apparent that both extracellular and intracellular recombinant protein production in Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells was higher than for parental cells (Figures 4 and 5). Thus, these data indicate that Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells express a higher amount of recombinant protein in BEVS, consistent with previous studies in S. frugiperda cells by our group  and in T. ni cells by Bentley’s group [24, 34]. Hence, we can suggest that the apoptotic repressed insect cells have greater recombinant protein production when infected with recombinant baculovirus, providing an effective production tool for BEVS. Besides, results also indicated that the difference of recombinant protein production between Sf-caspase-1-repressed and normal cells may be caused by the diverse cellular states that occur during the middle phase of the infection process (Figure 6).
Molecular chaperones are important and highly associated with the state of cells. The results of molecular chaperone mRNA levels in baculovirus-infected normal and Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells demonstrated that these cells were appeared in different states during the infection progression (Figure 7). Therefore, we assumed that this is a key explanation for baculovirus-infected Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells have a higher recombinant protein production than that in normal cells. The persistent expression of molecular chaperones in baculovirus-infected Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells resulted in a higher recombinant protein production than that in normal cells, which can be suggested by some earlier studies that focused on the co-expression of molecular chaperones, Bip (GRP78), Calreticulin and Calnexin in BEVS to improve the recombinant production and secretion from cells and larvas [35–38]. Therefore, we also suppose that expression of molecular chaperon in combined with RNAi technique may have opportunity to further improve BEVS.
During the baculovirus infection process, the condition of infected insect cells often represents key factors that affect both baculovirus replication and recombinant production. Therefore, there appears to be a distinct difference of the baculovirus infection process that occurs in normal and Sf-caspase-1-repressed cells. We proposed that the Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells have a different status and this response improves the ability of infected cells to express a higher amount of recombinant proteins.
In summary, the differential expression of molecular chaperones in baculovirus-infected Sf-caspase-1-repressed stable cells affects the production of recombinant protein when compare with normal cells. Therefore, the current study identified critical virus-cell interactions that are likely to improve the development of BEVS in future studies.
Construction of plasmids and recombinant baculovirus
Stable transfection plasmids were constructed using the pIB vector (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) as the backbone. The 5’ end 800 base pairs (bp) forward and reverse DNA fragments of the Sf-caspase-1 (Sf-casp1) gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the genomic DNA extracted from Sf9 cells. The resulting construct was named pIBdsCasp, containing an inverted-repeat sequence of Sf-casp1 under the control of the opIE2 promoter, as described previously  and shown in Figure 2A. Illustrations of pBacLuc and pBacSEAP are provided in Figure 2B, and the construction of these plasmids was performed using the Bac-to-Bac system according to the manufacturer’s protocols (Invitrogen) as described previously [25, 28]. Luciferase and SEAP were expressed in rBacLuc-, and rBacSEAP-infected insect cells, respectively. Recombinant baculovirus were amplified twice and titers were determined by the end-point dilution method .
Cell culture and transfection
Sf9 cells were cultured in Grace’s insect cell culture medium (Invitrogen) with 10% (v/v) heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS; Hyclone, Logan, UT) at 27°C. Cell density was determined by hemocytometer counts and cell viability was evaluated by the Trypan Blue exclusion method. The pIB vector or pIBdsCasp plasmids were transfected into Sf9 cells by Transfast reagent (Promega, Madison, WI) and stable cell lines were selected by the addition of 60 μg Blasticidin (BSD)/mL (Invitrogen), as previously described . Stable clones encoding pIB vector and pIBdsCasp plasmid were designated Sf9/pIB and Sf9/pIBdsCasp (Sf9/pIBdsCasp-1 and Sf9/pIBdsCasp-2) cells, respectively.
PCR and RT-PCR analysis
Primers used for PCR and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses are listed in Table 1. The genomic DNA was extracted from 5 × 104 stable insect cells using the Dneasy Tissue Extraction kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) and 500 ng of extracted genomic DNA was used in each 50 μL PCR. For genomic DNA PCR analysis, after an initial incubation at 94°C for 4 min, the reaction mixture was subjected to 25 or 35 cycles (Table 1) of PCR amplification at 94°C for 15 s, at 55°C for 30 s, and at 72°C for 1 min. PCR products were resolved by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis and analyzed after ethidium bromide staining.
Total RNA were isolated from cells using Trizol reagent (Invitrogen) according to standard protocols  and RNA concentrations were determined by UV absorption at 260 nm. To avoid DNA contamination, RNA samples were treated with RNase-free DNase I (Invitrogen) for 20 min at 37°C. For each RT-PCR, 200 ng of RNA were used in a 50 μL reaction. A reverse transcription step (50°C for 30 min and 94°C for 2 min) was followed by 25 cycles (Table 1) of denaturation at 94°C for 15 s, annealing at 55°C for 30 s, and extension at 72°C for 1 min. RT-PCR products were resolved by 1.2% agarose gel electrophoresis and analyzed after ethidium bromide staining. The ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of insect cells served as a loading control in the RT-PCR analysis.
Luciferase and SEAP activity analyses
For luciferase activity analysis, enzyme activity in the cell lysate from 2 × 104 cells was determined by the Luciferase reporter assay system (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s procedures and analyzed by a Victor2 Multilabel Counter (PerkinElmer Life Sciences, Norwalk, CT). Specific luciferase activities are presented as mean values normalized against those of the control (infected Sf9 cells).
For SEAP activity analysis, production of SEAP in 10 μL cultured medium was quantified by using a p-nitrophenylphosphate-based (pNPP) light absorbance time course method  and also analyzed by a Victor2 Multilabel Counter. The specific SEAP activities are presented as mean percentage relative to control (infected Sf9 cells).
Quantitative data were analyzed using Student’s t-test and presented as means ± standard deviation (S.D.) of two or three independent experiments. The P-values <0.05 were considered significant.
This work was supported by grants from the National Science Council, Taiwan, R.O.C. (NSC99-2313-B-126-002-MY3).
- Schafer ZT, Kornbluth S: The apoptosome: physiological, developmental, and pathological modes of regulation. Dev Cell. 2006, 10: 549-561. 10.1016/j.devcel.2006.04.008.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zoog SJ, Schiller JJ, Wetter JA, Chejanovsky N, Friesen PD: Baculovirus apoptotic suppressor P49 is a substrate inhibitor of initiator caspases resistant to P35 in vivo. EMBO J. 2002, 21: 5130-5140. 10.1038/sj.emboj.7594736.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferri KF, Kroemer G: Organelle-specific initiation of cell death pathways. Nat Cell Biol. 2001, 3: E255-E263. 10.1038/ncb1101-e255.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim YS, Xiao HZ, Du EQ, Cai GS, Lu SY, Qi YP: Identification and functional analysis of LsMNPV anti-apoptosis genes. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2007, 40: 571-576. 10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.4.571.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pei Z, Reske G, Huang Q, Hammock BD, Qi Y, Chejanovsky N: Characterization of the apoptosis suppressor protein P49 from the Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Biol Chem. 2002, 277: 48677-48684. 10.1074/jbc.M208810200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Manji GA, Friesen PD: Apoptosis in motion. An apical, P35-insensitive caspase mediates programmed cell death in insect cells. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 16704-16710. 10.1074/jbc.M010179200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- LaCount DJ, Hanson SF, Schneider CL, Friesen PD: Caspase inhibitor P35 and inhibitor of apoptosis Op-IAP block in vivo proteolytic activation of an effector caspase at different steps. J Biol Chem. 2000, 275: 15657-15664. 10.1074/jbc.M000791200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seshagiri S, Miller LK: Baculovirus inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) block activation of Sf-caspase-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 1997, 94: 13606-13611. 10.1073/pnas.94.25.13606.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bideshi DK, Tan Y, Bigot Y, Federici BA: A viral caspase contributes to modified apoptosis for virus transmission. Genes Dev. 2005, 19: 1416-1421. 10.1101/gad.1300205.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahmad M, Srinivasula SM, Wang L, Litwack G, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Alnemri ES: Spodoptera frugiperda caspase-1, a novel insect death protease that cleaves the nuclear immunophilin FKBP46, is the target of the baculovirus antiapoptotic protein p35. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 1421-1424. 10.1074/jbc.272.3.1421.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu M, Li Z, Yang K, Lin T, Gong Y, Pan L, Pang Y: Identification of the apoptosis inhibitor gene p49 of Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virus Genes. 2005, 31: 145-151. 10.1007/s11262-005-1786-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Means JC, Muro I, Clem RJ: Silencing of the baculovirus Op-iap3 gene by RNA interference reveals that it is required for prevention of apoptosis during Orgyia pseudotsugata M nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Ld652Y cells. J Virol. 2003, 77: 4481-4488. 10.1128/JVI.77.8.4481-4488.2003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu B, Ye J, Lu P, Jiang R, Yang X, Fu ZF, Chen H, Cao S: Induction of antigen-specific immune responses in mice by recombinant baculovirus expressing premembrane and envelope proteins of West Nile virus. Virol J. 2012, 9: 132-10.1186/1743-422X-9-132.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lynch AG, Tanzer F, Fraser MJ, Shephard EG, Williamson AL, Rybicki EP: Use of the piggyBac transposon to create HIV-1 gag transgenic insect cell lines for continuous VLP production. BMC Biotechnol. 2010, 10: 30-10.1186/1472-6750-10-30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Y-c H: Baculovirus as a highly efficient expression vector in insect and mammalian cells. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005, 26: 405-416. 10.1111/j.1745-7254.2005.00078.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kost TA, Condreay JP, Jarvis DL: Baculovirus as versatile vectors for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2005, 23: 567-575. 10.1038/nbt1095.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cox MM: Recombinant protein vaccines produced in insect cells. Vaccine. 2012, 30: 1759-1766. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.01.016.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- van Oers MM: Opportunities and challenges for the baculovirus expression system. J Invertebr Pathol. 2011, 107 (Suppl): S3-S15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang KL, Lai YK, Lin CC, Chang JM: Involvement of GRP78 in inhibition of HBV secretion by Boehmeria nivea extract in human HepG2 2.2.15 cells. J Viral Hepat. 2009, 16: 367-375. 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01072.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chang YS, Lo CW, Sun FC, Chang MD, Lai YK: Differential expression of Hsp90 isoforms in geldanamycin-treated 9L cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006, 344: 37-44. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.03.157.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shu CW, Sun FC, Cho JH, Lin CC, Liu PF, Chen PY, Chang MD, Fu HW, Lai YK: GRP78 and Raf-1 cooperatively confer resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. J Cell Physiol. 2008, 215: 627-635. 10.1002/jcp.21340.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lyupina YV, Dmitrieva SB, Timokhova AV, Beljelarskaya SN, Zatsepina OG, Evgen’ev MB, Mikhailov VS: An important role of the heat shock response in infected cells for replication of baculoviruses. Virology. 2010, 406: 336-341. 10.1016/j.virol.2010.07.039.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yun EY, Goo TW, Kim SW, Choi KH, Hwang JS, Kang SW, Kwon OY: Changes in cellular secretory processing during baculovirus infection. Biotechnol Lett. 2005, 27: 1041-1045. 10.1007/s10529-005-8108-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hebert CG, Valdes JJ, Bentley WE: In vitro and in vivo RNA interference mediated suppression of Tn-caspase-1 for improved recombinant protein production in High Five cell culture with the baculovirus expression vector system. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009, 104: 390-399. 10.1002/bit.22411.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin CC, Hsu JT, Huang KL, Tang HK, Shu CW, Lai YK: Sf-Caspase-1-repressed stable cells: resistance to apoptosis and augmentation of recombinant protein production. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2007, 48: 11-19. 10.1042/BA20070044.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim EJ, Kramer SF, Hebert CG, Valdes JJ, Bentley WE: Metabolic engineering of the baculovirus-expression system via inverse “shotgun” genomic analysis and RNA interference (dsRNA) increases product yield and cell longevity. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2007, 98: 645-654. 10.1002/bit.21353.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kramer SF, Bentley WE: RNA interference as a metabolic engineering tool: potential for in vivo control of protein expression in an insect larval model. Metab Eng. 2003, 5: 183-190. 10.1016/S1096-7176(03)00027-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin CC, Hsu JT, Huang KL, Tang HK, Lai YK: Stable RNA interference in Spodoptera frugiperda cells by a DNA vector-based method. Biotechnol Lett. 2006, 28: 271-277. 10.1007/s10529-005-5530-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Negre V, Hotelier T, Volkoff AN, Gimenez S, Cousserans F, Mita K, Sabau X, Rocher J, Lopez-Ferber M, D’Alencon E, et al: SPODOBASE: an EST database for the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera. BMC Bioinforma. 2006, 7: 322-10.1186/1471-2105-7-322.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Popham HJ, Grasela JJ, Goodman CL, McIntosh AH: Baculovirus infection influences host protein expression in two established insect cell lines. J Insect Physiol. 2010, 56: 1237-1245. 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2010.03.024.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Landais I, Pommet J, Mita K, Nohata J, Gimenez S, Fournier P, Devauchelle G, Duonor-Cerutti M, Ogliastro M: Characterization of the cDNA encoding the 90 kDa heat-shock protein in the Lepidoptera Bombyx mori and Spodoptera frugiperda. Gene. 2001, 271: 223-231. 10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00523-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu SC, Huang H, Lin CC: Expression and functional characterization of Helicobacter pylori catalase from baculovirus-infected insect cells. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2004, 35: 482-487. 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2004.08.031.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nobiron I, O’Reilly DR, Olszewski JA: Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells: a global analysis of host gene regulation during infection, using a differential display approach. J Gen Virol. 2003, 84: 3029-3039. 10.1099/vir.0.19270-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hebert CG, Valdes JJ, Bentley WE: Investigating apoptosis: characterization and analysis of Trichoplusia ni-caspase-1 through overexpression and RNAi mediated silencing. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009, 39: 113-124. 10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.10.009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang L, Wu G, Tate CG, Lookene A, Olivecrona G: Calreticulin promotes folding/dimerization of human lipoprotein lipase expressed in insect cells (sf21). J Biol Chem. 2003, 278: 29344-29351. 10.1074/jbc.M300455200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hsu TA, Betenbaugh MJ: Coexpression of molecular chaperone BiP improves immunoglobulin solubility and IgG secretion from Trichoplusia ni insect cells. Biotechnol Prog. 1997, 13: 96-104. 10.1021/bp960088d.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sokolenko S, George S, Wagner A, Tuladhar A, Andrich JM, Aucoin MG: Co-expression vs. co-infection using baculovirus expression vectors in insect cell culture: Benefits and drawbacks. Biotechnol Adv. 2012, 30: 766-781. 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2012.01.009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakajima M, Kato T, Kanamasa S, Park EY: Molecular chaperone-assisted production of human alpha-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase in silkworm larvae using recombinant BmNPV bacmids. Mol Biotechnol. 2009, 43: 67-75. 10.1007/s12033-009-9174-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- O’Reilly D, Miller L, Luckow V: Baculovirus expression vectors: A laoratory manual. 1992, WH Freeman and Co., NYGoogle Scholar
- Huang KL, Lai YK, Lin CC, Chang JM: Inhibition of hepatitis B virus production by Boehmeria nivea root extract in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2006, 12: 5721-5725.Google Scholar
- Berger J, Hauber J, Hauber R, Geiger R, Cullen BR: Secreted placental alkaline phosphatase: a powerful new quantitative indicator of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Gene. 1988, 66: 1-10. 10.1016/0378-1119(88)90219-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.