The bifunctional dihydrofolate reductase thymidylate synthase of Tetrahymena thermophila provides a tool for molecular and biotechnology applications
© Herrmann et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 05 October 2005
Accepted: 20 March 2006
Published: 20 March 2006
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are crucial enzymes in DNA synthesis. In alveolata both enzymes are expressed as one bifunctional enzyme.
Loss of this essential enzyme activities after successful allelic assortment of knock out alleles yields an auxotrophic marker in ciliates. Here the cloning, characterisation and functional analysis of Tetrahymena thermophila's DHFR-TS is presented. A first aspect of the presented work relates to destruction of DHFR-TS enzyme function in an alveolate thereby causing an auxotrophy for thymidine. A second aspect is to knock in an expression cassette encoding for a foreign gene with subsequent expression of the target protein.
This system avoids the use of antibiotics or other drugs and therefore is of high interest for biotechnological applications.
Tetrahymena thermophila is a ciliated eukaryotic unicellular organism belonging to the regnum of protozoa and bearing two nuclei, a transcriptionally silent, diploid germline micronucleus (MIC) and a transcriptionally active, polyploid somatic macronucleus (MAC). In 1923, when Nobel Laureate Andre Lwoff succeeded in growing Tetrahymena in pure culture, the basis for exploiting this alveolate as a model organism was laid. Milestone discoveries made in T. thermophila are the discovery of dynein motors, telomeres, RNA-mediated catalysis, telomerase and the function of histone acetyltransferases in transcription regulation. Within the last decades molecular biological techniques have been developed to alter T. thermophila's genome and proteome: DNA transfection methods range from microinjection and electroporation into the MAC to biolistic bombardment of MIC and MAC. Episomal plasmids based on an rDNA-replicon are available, as well as knock out/-in techniques based on homologous recombination[11, 12].
On protein level heterologous expression of related species has been performed[13, 14] and also endogenous proteins were silenced by a novel antisense-ribosome-technique. The biotechnological potential of T. thermophila has been proven in numerous publications, demonstrating fast growth, high biomass, fermentation in ordinary bacterial/yeast equipment, up-scalability, existence of cheap and chemical defined media [16–18].
Although known and analysed for decades, only a few markers have been described for T. thermophila. So far there are ribosomal point mutation mediated resistances, a plasmid based neomycin resistance and a beta-tubulin selection marker making use of an inducible promoter in combination with mutated tubulins being resistant or sensitive to the mitotic drug taxol. Yet no true auxotrophic marker is available that permits selection without the use of antibiotics or drugs.
Critical enzymes in pyrimidine biosynthesis are dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS). DHFR catalyses the production of tetrahydrofolate from dihydrofolate; TS is in charge of transferring a methyl-group from N5, N10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate to dUMP thereby generating dTMP and tetrahydrofolate. These enzymes being crucial for pyrimidine synthesis have been used as auxotrophic markers in various systems by targeted gene disruption but also a number of inhibitors (antifolates) have been developed as anti-cancer drugs. In animals, fungi and eubacteria the DHFR and TS gene are separately translated, whereas plants, alveolata and euglenozoa have a bifunctional fusion gene with both enzyme activities combined in one protein ("DHFR-TS").
The occurrence of the bifunctional enzyme in T. pyriformis has been postulated in 1984 and 1985 but no functional or even molecular biological analysis had been performed. A partial amino acid sequence of DHFR-TS of a non determined "T. pyriformis-like strain" has been published in 2002, but this work is lacking any proof of linkage to the described partial cDNA to enzyme function. Here we present a first characterization of the T. thermophila DHFR-TS gene including gene structure and functional data on the enzyme and data on in vivo function. For the first time we show that the T. thermophila DHFR-TS locus provides an auxotrophic marker system that enables monitoring of allelic assortment processes. As PCR based approaches always have to cope with wildtype alleles present in the MIC, the DHFR-TS auxotrophy system is able to deliver direct proof of the allelic assortment to be completed: Only in the case of all wildtype alleles in the MAC having been substituted by the knock out construct the auxotrophy will occur. Combining this methodology with a knock in, a new, stable and useful strain to express recombinant enzymes or proteins has been generated.
Tetrahymenathermophila is a free-living ciliated protozoan that has become increasingly interesting as an excellent expression system. It is one of the best characterised unicellular eukaryotes and its genome has been sequenced in its entirety (The Institute for Genomic Research). These features form the basis for using T. thermophila in future biotechnology applications. However, appropriate marker systems that are essential tools for genetic manipulations are limited. The enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate reductase (TS) play a crucial for pyrimidine synthesis, therefore both enzymes have been used as auxotrophic marker-systems in various species by targeted gene disruption. The aim was to establish such a DHFR marker system for T. thermophila. Interestingly, the bifunctional DHFR-TS has been as taxonomic tool to set up phylogenetic trees for years. These approaches led to a very rudimental DHFR-TS amino acid fragment sequence of a non determined "T. pyriformis-like strain". By using this incomplete information and data from the entire T. thermophila genome it was possible to determine the whole sequence of the bifunctional DHFR-TS MAC gene in T. thermophila. The T. thermophila DHFR-TS gene and its flanking regions were amplified by using the primer pairs DHFR 5'1F NotI, DHFR 5'2R BamHI for the 5'region non coding region, the primer pair DHFR 3'1F XhoI: 5, DHFR 3'1R Acc65I for the 3'region and the primers DHFR CDS-F, DHFR CDS-F for amplification of the coding region.
The T. thermophilaDHFR-TS gene structure
Sequence alignment of the T. thermophilaDHFR-TS enzyme to other alveolates
Proper integration of the knock out construct into the DHFR-TS locus and auxotrophy for thymidine
Functional addition of an expression cassette to the knock out construct
The knockout of the endogenous DHFR-TS gene of T. thermophila also provides the possibility to knockin a further foreign gene that can be expressed heterologously in the DHFR-TS knock out strains. Therefore we named our constructs pKOI (pKOI: knock out and knock in). To illustrate this knock out/-in concept we constructed the pKOI DVL plasmid. It consists of a pKOI backbone with an additional expression cassette that encodes the first 115 amino acids (aa) of the precursor sequence of the PLA1 gene and the mature human DNase I (aa 23 to 281). The PLA1 pre/pro-peptide (aa 1 to 110) has significant similarity to members of the cathepsin L family and mediates secretion into the medium. The five additional amino acids (aa 111 to 115) should ensure an optimal cleavage of the pro PLA1-DNaseI fusion protein by endogenous pro-peptidases. In contrast to the neo2 cassette the expression of the ppPLA115-DNase I fusion protein is regulated by the inducible MTT1 promoter. The inducible system was selected because it allows a clear discrimination between the DNase activity of heterologously expressed recombinant human DNase I and the basal activity due to at least two endogenous DNases. The transformation, selection of positive clones and the directed allelic assortment were done as described in the material and methods section.
The ciliated protozoan T. thermophila features two nuclei, a somatic macronucleus (MAC) and a genetic micronucleus (MIC) offering different possibilities of manipulating the organism's properties (for a short and comprehensive review see).
It is well known that altering the cell's phenotype ultimately needs direct or indirect (by MIC transformation and conjugation) genetic engineering of the vegetative MAC. The first approaches for heterologous expression were done by using plasmids that use the vast amplification of the rDNA gene during anlagen/MAC development. However, the episomal presence of these plasmids depends on the drug concentration and the plasmid may recombine homologously and non-directionally into endogenous rDNA units.
Stable integration of expression cassettes into diploid MIC can be achieved by biolistic bombardment. After conjugation of two different mating types the old MACs disappear and new ones form that carry the new information derived from the recombinant MIC. The whole process follows the statistics of the Mendelian genetics. The advantage of this approach is that one obtains stable clones that maintain the genetic properties and that can be crossed via classical genetics to combine various properties of different T. thermophila strains. This approach is elaborative and time consuming. Furthermore, it has been shown recently that scan RNAs (snRNA) derived from the old MAC play an important role in DNA elimination during the development of the somatic MAC from the germline MIC (see  for review). The primary sequence of these small RNAs explains how the parental MAC epigenetically controls the genome rearrangement in the new MAC. In the case of stable MIC transformants this RNAi-like mechanism may cause partial deletion of foreign expression cassettes in the developing new MAC .
Therefore instead of episomal transformation by rDNA based plasmids or the stable transformation of the MIC we used a shortcut by combining MAC transformation with allelic assortment. This combination has several advantages. Firstly, the MAC transformation is much more efficient because there are at least about 45 potential integration sites per gene locus. This increases the probability of integration to at least one order of magnitude. Secondly, not only conjugating but also non-conjugating and therefore defined strains can be transformed. This is very important, because it allows the stepwise improvement of strains by maintaining defined genetic properties. Thirdly after completed allelic assortment the use of any antibiotic is obsolete as wildtype alleles have vanished in a one-way-manner. This allows cheap cultivation at large scales for e.g. biotechnical production processes.
In summary use of the DHFR-TS gene locus as a target for homologous genomic integration does not only provide a robust and simple marker system to assure complete allelic assortment of altered ARPs in the MAC but also the pKOI concept combining the DHFR-TS knock out with an additional knock in and subsequent expression of foreign genes.
Cells and cell culture
Tetrahymena thermophila strains B 1868/4, B 1868/7 and B 2068/1 were cultivated in skimmed milk medium in SPP (0.5% proteose peptone, 0.5% yeast extract, 0.1% ferrous sulphate chelate solution and 1% glucose) or in CDM medium.
Amplification of the DHFR-TS gene of T. thermophila
The DHFR-TS cDNA, gene including 5'and 3' flanking sites can be amplified using the following primer pairs. Nucleotides in small letters encode sites for restriction endonucleases. Amplification of the DHFR-TS 5' flanking region:
DHFR 5'1 F NotI: 5'-cccgcggccgcACAGAGTTAATGGAAATGGAGC-3'
DHFR 5'2R BamHI: 5'-gggggatccATATTTAAGCGATCTTTCAATGG-3'
Amplification of the DHFR-TS cDNA and gene with introns:
Amplification of the DHFR-TS 3'flanking region:
DHFR 3'1F XhoI: 5'-gggctcgagATGCTCATGTTTACTCTAATCACG-3'
DHFR 3'1R Acc65I: 5'-gggggtaccAGTAAAAATAGAGTAGAAGGAG-3'.
Construction of plasmids
Construction of pKOI
The pKOI (knock out/-in) plasmid was constructed as follows: As backbone for selection and propagation in E. coli. the pBlueScript II SK plasmid was used. The 1.5 kb 5'-DHFR-TS integration site was amplified using the primer pair DHFR 5' 1 F NotI and DHFR 5' 2 R BamHI cloned into pBS II SK by using NotI and BamHI sites. Next the 1.4 kb paromomycin selection cassette from the pH4T2 (neo2) was cloned into the intermediate pBS IISK by BamHI and SmaI sites. Finally, the 3'-DHFR-TS integration site was amplified by primers DHFR 3' 1 F XhoI and DHFR 3' 1 R Acc65I and cloned by using the XhoI and Acc65I sites to finish the DHFR-TS knock out cassette. The SacI site of the pBS II SK backbone had been destroyed by site directed mutagenesis to facilitate the use of the endogenous SacI site in the 3'-DHFR-TS integrating sequence and the XhoI site as unique cloning site in pKOI. The whole pKOI basis vector is ~7.7 kb in size and contains a multiple cloning site (figure 3).
Construction of pKOI DVL
The unique XhoI and SacI sites were used to insert the ppPLA115-DNase knock in expression cassette (~2.5 kb). This cassette encodes a fusion protein of the first 115 aa of the endogenous PLA1 precursor and the aa 23–281 of the mature human DNaseI, flanked by a ~1 kb MTT1 promotor active sequence and the ~0.4 kb BTU2 terminator, leading to a ~10.2 kb vector. To ensure proper translation of this fusion protein a codon optimised synthetic human DNase I gene was used (submitted at BMC Biotechnol.)
The junction sequence between the MTT1 promoter and the precursor sequence of PLA1 is given with the sequence ATGgatatcAAC, using a EcoRV site (gatatc) between the initial ATG of the MTT1 gene and the second codon (AAC) of the PLA1 precursor sequence. The cDNA that encodes the ppPLA115-DNase I fusion protein ends with the TGA stop codon followed by a BglII site (agatct). Therefore the "knock in" cassette (generated in an intermediate vector) offers a modular structure that allows the simple replacement of the promoter (by XhoI/EcoRV), the coding sequence (by EcoRV/BglII) and the terminator DNA sequences (by BglII/SacI). Further details of the primers and constructs are available from the authors.
Transformation of pKOI plasmids (biolistic bombardment)
We used conjugating cells, as well as vegetative, growing or stationary T. thermophila strains. The transformation of the T. thermophila cells was performed as previously described in.
Selection, allelic assortment and DHFR-TS knock out assay
T. thermophila cell proliferation assay: For the first ca 16 h after biolistic bombardment transformants were grown in skimmed milk medium. After that transformed cells were grown on SPP medium with in increasing concentrations of paromomycin (from 100 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL) to support the allelic assortment process. After 3–4 weeks each clone was cultivated on CDM replica plates with or without thymidine (10 mg/mL). Functional DHFR-TS knock out clones are only able to grow in CDM medium supplemented with thymidine. The viability of the DHFR-TS knock out strains was monitored by determining the growth kinetic. The complete integration of the DHFR-TS knock out and DNase I knock in cassette was confirmed by PCR using the following primers:
A pH4T2 plasmid carrying the same neo2 and DNase I expression/secretion cassettes was used as PCR control.
SDS-PAGE and Western blot
Aliquots of transformed cells and of SPP supernatants were resuspended in sample buffer and separated on 15 % SDS-PAGE. The gels were blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes and blocked in PBS containing 0.05 % Tween 20 and 5 % skim milk (PBS-TM). The expression of recombinant human DNase I in transformed Ciliates was detected by two specific anti sera from rabbit against human DNase I (antigen: recombinant human DNase I, Pulmozyme, Roche). Both sera detected the recombinant DNase I antigen. The serum was used in a 1:500 dilution in PBS-TM. After washing with PBS/T and applying an HRP-conjugated anti rabbit serum. The blots were developed by using chemiluminescence.
DNase I activity assay
The methyl green based DNase activity assay was performed as already published . Samples were incubated at 37°C for 24 h on a microtiter plate. Absorbance was measured at 620 nm. Calibration of the assay was achieved by different amounts of defined DNase I Units of Pulmozyme from Roche (CHO derived) in each experiment and linear regression. These results combined with semi-quantitative Western blotting were used to calculate the specific activity of expressed DNase I.
DHFR-TS sequences were aligned with Sci Ed Central's Clonemanger Professional Suite v6.0 using the BLOSUM 62 score matrix.
We would like to thank Angelika Kronenfeld for excellent technical assistance and commitment. This work represents main parts of the PhD thesis of UB.
- Karrer KM: Tetrahymena genetics: two nuclei are better than one. Methods Cell Biol. 2000, 62: 127-186.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gibbons IR, A.J R: Dynein: a protein with adenosine triphosphatase activity from cilia. Science. 1965, 149: 424-426.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blackburn EH, Gall JG: A tandemly repeated sequence at the termini of the extrachromosomal ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena. J Mol Biol. 1978, 120: 33-53. 10.1016/0022-2836(78)90294-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cech TR, Zaug AJ, Grabowski PJ: In vitro splicing of the ribosomal RNA precursor of Tetrahymena: involvement of a guanosine nucleotide in the excision of the intervening sequence. Cell. 1981, 27: 487-496. 10.1016/0092-8674(81)90390-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Greider CW, Blackburn EH: Identification of a specific telomere terminal transferase activity in Tetrahymena extracts. Cell. 1985, 43: 405-413. 10.1016/0092-8674(85)90170-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brownell JE, Zhou J, Ranalli T, Kobayashi R, Edmondson DG, Roth SY, Allis CD: Tetrahymena histone acetyltransferase A: a homolog to yeast Gcn5p linking histone acetylation to gene activation. Cell. 1996, 84: 843-851. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81063-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pan WC, Blackburn EH: Single extrachromosomal ribosomal RNA gene copies are synthesized during amplification of the rDNA in Tetrahymena. Cell. 1981, 23: 459-466. 10.1016/0092-8674(81)90141-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gaertig J, Gorovsky MA: Efficient mass transformation of Tetrahymena thermophila by electroporation of conjugants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992, 89: 9196-9200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cassidy-Hanley D, Bowen J, Lee JH, Cole E, VerPlank LA, Gaertig J, Gorovsky MA, Bruns PJ: Germline and somatic transformation of mating Tetrahymena thermophila by particle bombardment. Genetics. 1997, 146: 135-147.Google Scholar
- Larson DD, Blackburn EH, Yaeger PC, Orias E: Control of rDNA replication in Tetrahymena involves a cis-acting upstream repeat of a promoter element. Cell. 1986, 47: 229-240. 10.1016/0092-8674(86)90445-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hai B, Gaertig J, Gorovsky MA: Knockout heterokaryons enable facile mutagenic analysis of essential genes in Tetrahymena. Methods Cell Biol. 2000, 62: 513-531.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gaertig J, Kapler G: Transient and stable DNA transformation of Tetrahymena thermophila by electroporation. Methods Cell Biol. 2000, 62: 485-500.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Clark TG, Gao Y, Gaertig J, Wang X, Cheng G: The I-antigens of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis are GPI-anchored proteins. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2001, 48: 332-337. 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2001.tb00322.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Peterson DS, Gao Y, Asokan K, Gaertig J: The circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum is expressed and localized to the cell surface in the free-living ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002, 122: 119-126. 10.1016/S0166-6851(02)00079-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sweeney R, Fan Q, Yao MC: Antisense ribosomes: rRNA as a vehicle for antisense RNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996, 93: 8518-8523. 10.1073/pnas.93.16.8518.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guberman A, Hartmann M, Tiedtke A, Florin-Christensen J, Florin-Christensen M: A method for the preparation of Tetrahymena thermophila phospholipase A1 suitable for large-scale production. J Appl Microbiol. 1999, 86: 226-230. 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00651.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wheatley DN, Rasmussen L, Tiedtke A: Tetrahymena: a model for growth, cell cycle and nutritional studies, with biotechnological potential. Bioessays. 1994, 16: 367-372. 10.1002/bies.950160512.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hellenbroich D, Valley U, Ryll T, Wagner R, Tekkanat N, Kessler W, Ross A, Deckwer WD: Cultivation of Tetrahymena thermophila in a 1.5-m3 airlift bioreactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1999, 51: 447-455. 10.1007/s002530051415.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gaertig J, Gu L, Hai B, Gorovsky MA: High frequency vector-mediated transformation and gene replacement in Tetrahymena. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994, 22: 5391-5398.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gaertig J, Thatcher TH, Gu L, Gorovsky MA: Electroporation-mediated replacement of a positively and negatively selectable beta-tubulin gene in Tetrahymena thermophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994, 91: 4549-4553.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huennekens FM: The methotrexate story: a paradigm for development of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Adv Enzyme Regul. 1994, 34:397-419.: 397-419. 10.1016/0065-2571(94)90025-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stechmann A, Cavalier-Smith T: Rooting the eukaryote tree by using a derived gene fusion. Science. 2002, 297: 89-91. 10.1126/science.1071196.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- The Institute for Genomic Research. [ http://www.tigr.org ]Google Scholar
- Weide T, Herrmann L, Bockau U, Niebur N, Aldag I, Laroy W, Contreras A, Tiedtke A, Hartmann MWW: Secretion of functional human enzymes by Tetrahymena thermophila. BMC Biotechnol. 2006, 6: 19-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shang Y, Song X, Bowen J, Corstanje R, Gao Y, Gaertig J, Gorovsky MA: A robust inducible-repressible promoter greatly facilitates gene knockouts, conditional expression, and overexpression of homologous and heterologous genes in Tetrahymena thermophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002, 99: 3734-3739. 10.1073/pnas.052016199.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Collins K, Gorovsky MA: Tetrahymena thermophila. Curr Biol. 2005, 15: R317-R318. 10.1016/j.cub.2005.04.039.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yao MC, Chao JL: RNA-Guided DNA Deletion in Tetrahymena: An RNAi-Based Mechanism for Programmed Genome Rearrangements. Annu Rev Genet. 2005, .:Google Scholar
- Yao MC, Fuller P, Xi X: Programmed DNA deletion as an RNA-guided system of genome defense. Science. 2003, 300: 1581-1584. 10.1126/science.1084737.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kiy T, Tiedtke A: Continuous high-cell-density fermentation of the ciliated protozoon Tetrahymena in a perfused bioreactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1992, 38: 141-146. 10.1007/BF00174458.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sinicropi D, Baker DL, Prince WS, Shiffer K, Shak S: Colorimetric determination of DNase I activity with a DNA-methyl green substrate. Anal Biochem. 1994, 222: 351-358. 10.1006/abio.1994.1502.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.