Tender coconut water an economical growth medium for the production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli
© Sekar et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 11 March 2013
Accepted: 19 August 2013
Published: 2 September 2013
Escherichia coli is most widely used prokaryotic expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Several strategies have been employed for expressing recombinant proteins in E.coli. This includes the development of novel host systems, expression vectors and cost effective media. In this study, we exploit tender coconut water (TCW) as a natural and cheaper growth medium for E.coli and Pichia pastoris.
E.coli and P.pastoris were cultivated in TCW and the growth rate was monitored by measuring optical density at 600 nm (OD600nm), where 1.55 for E.coli and 8.7 for P.pastoris was obtained after 12 and 60 hours, respectively. However, variation in growth rate was observed among TCW when collected from different localities (0.15-2.5 at OD600nm), which is attributed to the varying chemical profile among samples. In this regard, we attempted the supplementation of TCW with different carbon and nitrogen sources to attain consistency in growth rate. Here, supplementation of TCW with 25 mM ammonium sulphate (TCW-S) was noted efficient for the normalization of inconsistency, which further increased the biomass of E.coli by 2 to 10 folds, and 1.5 to 2 fold in P.pastoris. These results indicate that nitrogen source is the major limiting factor for growth. This was supported by total nitrogen and carbon estimation where, nitrogen varies from 20 to 60 mg/100 ml while carbohydrates showed no considerable variation (2.32 to 3.96 g/100 ml). In this study, we also employed TCW as an expression media for recombinant proteins by demonstrating successful expression of maltose binding protein (MBP), MBP-TEV protease fusion and a photo switchable fluorescent protein (mEos2) using TCW and the expression level was found to be equivalent to Luria Broth (LB).
This study highlights the possible application of TCW-S as a media for cultivation of a variety of microorganisms and recombinant protein expression.
KeywordsCoconut water Growth media E.coli Pichia pastoris Protein expression Natural media
An ideal growth medium for microbes requires many macro and micronutrients in appropriate proportion for optimal growth and metabolism. Carbon and nitrogen are the major sources for microbial growth, while trace elements like sulphur, phosphorus, vitamins etc., are micronutrients. Further, natural media has long served as a source for microbial propagation. Urine, meat extract, potato pieces, sprouted barley, soya flour etc., are some pioneer media employed for microbial growth [1, 2]. Even in the present days, yeast extract, beef extract, casein, are among the major ingredients of commercially available culture media . Being readily available and serving as a rich source of essential nutrients for the growth of microbes, such natural components are widely used in chemically undefined media. However, these involve tedious procedures like extraction of nutrients, their maintenance, sterilization and supplementation to meet the requirements for microbial growth and development.
Tender coconut water (TCW), liquid endosperm present in the cavity of the coconut fruit consists of nutrients which comprises of 95.5% water, 4% sugars, 0.1% fat, 0.02% calcium, 0.01% phosphorous, 0.5% iron, considerable amounts of amino acids, mineral salts, vitamin B complex, vitamin C and cytokines etc. . Because of the rich nutrient content in coconut water, it was noted for its wide applications in plant tissue culture, growing fungus and other microbes [4–6]. In few such studies, coconut water was used as complete growth media for Rhodotorula glutinins. Whereas, Unagul et al., demonstrated the supplementation of coconut water to yeast extract-diluted seawater medium for the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which was 50% higher than that of non-supplemented media . Similarly, coconut water was used as a raw material for supplementation of carbon and nitrogen in MRS- sucrose media for the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) by Lactobacillus confusus to reduce the cost of fermentation medium . In another study, Prabakaran et al., reported the production of δ endotoxin, an endogenous protein of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, (a biological control agent against mosquitoes) using coconut water as a growth medium . Although the above studies focused on growth of microbes and endogenous protein production in coconut water, its application in recombinant protein production has not been demonstrated before.
In recent years, the therapeutic application of recombinant proteins has been increased immensely. Many industries are producing large quantities of recombinant proteins and the need for expression media devoid of any toxin has increased subsequently. TCW is plant derived and deficient in endotoxins which are present in other commercially available media. Hence, this isotonic beverage could be a safe alternative medium for therapeutic protein production. Since, TCW is naturally sterile, the preparation and sterilization is fairly convenient in comparison to conventionally used media. It is economical and abundantly available throughout the year (especially tropical and coastal areas), thereby contributing to its feasibility as a potential microbial growth medium.
Strains and plasmids
E.coli strains such as BL21 (DE3), BL21 (DE3) pLysS were used for protein expression studies whereas, E.coli C41 (DE3) and P.pastoris GS115 were used for growth studies. All the strains were procured from Invitrogen™, USA. Three different constructs were used namely; maltose binding protein (MBP), a fusion of MBP with tobacco etch virus protease (MBP-TEV) and monomeric variant of photo switchable fluorescent Eos proteins (mEos2). pMAL-c5× for expressing MBP, pMAL-c5× harboring TEV for expressing MBP-TEV fusion and pRSET-A harbouring mEos2 were used in this study. TEV was synthesized by GeneScripts, USA and mEos2 was a kind gift from Dr. Satyajit Mayor, NCBS, Bangaluru, India.
Preparation of TCW media and agar plates
Supplementation of TCW (TCW-S) with carbon, nitrogen and other salts
List of tested supplements: 1M stock solutions were prepared by dissolving the salts in water
Stock solution concentration
Amino acid mixture1 (− cys,-met,-tyr)
10 mg/ml each of 17 amino acids1
Estimation of total carbohydrate, nitrogen and other metabolites in TCW
The concentration of amino acids and metabolites were estimated using LC-MS/SRM (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Selected Reaction Monitoring) method. All amino acids, acetone, formic acid were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Bangalore, India). The corresponding deuterated internal standards (ISTD) were obtained from CDN isotopes (Quebec, Canada). Acetonitrile and water used for the chromatography were obtained from Thermo Fisher Scientific. 10 ng of ISTD mix of all amino acids were spiked with 10 μL of TCW and amino acids were extracted by precipitating the proteins using 200 μL of acetone (0.1% FA). It was then vortexed, centrifuged (13000 rpm, 5min) and the supernatant was dried using speed vacuum. The derivatization of amino acids was done in the similar way using the 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate as previously published procedure . The analysis was done using the LC-MS system (LC-Agilent 1290 infinity series, MS- Thermo Fisher TSQ vantage). The single major product ion of m/z 171 was used for the SRM transitions. LC conditions [Solvent system A-water (0.1% FA), B-acetonitrile (0.1% FA), flow-200 μL/min, column- C-18 (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm, Phenomenex), gradient- 0 to 3 min- 2% B, 3–20 min-20% B, 20 to 25 min- 35%, 25 to 27-80% B, 27–30 min-2% B]. MS conditions [spray voltage-3700 V, ion transfer capillary temperature 270°C, source temperature 30°C, sheath gas 20, auxiliary gas 10 (arbitrary units), collision gas-argon, S-lens voltage and collision energy were optimized for individual amino acids, scan time-50 millisec, ion polarity is positive). The final relative quantification was done based on the area under the curve of individual amino acid ISTDs.
Inoculum preparation and culture conditions
For growth studies, E.coli C41 (DE3) was streaked on LB-agar plates and P.pastoris GS115 on YPD (Yeast (1%) Peptone (2%) Dextrose (2%) medium) agar plate, then incubated at 37°C and 30°C for overnight, respectively. A loop-full of colonies were inoculated into 10 ml of TCW or M9 (1 g NH4Cl, 3 g KH2PO4, 6 g Na2HPO4, 4 g glucose, and 1 ml of 1M MgSO4/L) minimal medium (wherever applicable) and incubated for overnight at 37°C for E.coli and 30°C for P.pastoris (primary culture) with 200 rpm. Primary culture (E.coli: ~1.5 × 108, P.pastoris: ~1.5 × 106 cells) was then inoculated into 250 ml flask containing 50 ml of TCW/TCW-S/M9 (wherever applicable) and the growth was monitored by measuring OD600nm. All the experiments were performed in triplicates and mean standard deviation was calculated.
To study protein expression in TCW, constructs of MBP and MBP-TEV fusion were transformed into BL21 (DE3) and mEos2 into BL21 (DE3) pLysS. One percent of overnight culture was inoculated into 250 ml flask containing 50 ml of TCW, TCW-S (supplemented) and LB media containing ampicillin (100 μg/ml) followed by incubation at 37°C with 200 rpm. The cultures were induced with IPTG (0.4 mM for MBP, MBP-TEV and 0.1 mM for mEos2) at OD600nm of 0.5-0.6 and incubated at 30°C for 5 hours. Further, samples were harvested and centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 15 minutes at 4°C. Expression level was checked on 12% SDS-PAGE.
Results and discussion
Growth of E.coli and P.pastorisin TCW and TCW-S
TCW being rich in nutrients contains all the essential components that are required for the growth of microorganisms. In order to demonstrate its use as a complete media, E.coli was grown in TCW and a maximum OD600nm of 1.55 was noted after 12 hours. The growth rate was compared to that of conventional M9 media, which showed OD600nm maximum of 1.70 (Figure 1A) after 12 hours of incubation.
E.coli is known to grow at pH 4.0 to 8.0 . However, the optimum pH is reported as 6.5- 7.0 . We noted the pH of TCW as 4.7 ± 0.2. In this regard, a 50 ml sample was pH adjusted to 7.0 and growth was monitored. After overnight incubation, the pH was reduced and found to be equivalent to that of unadjusted TCW, with no difference in growth rate. Hence, all experiments were performed without adjusting pH. Nevertheless, to achieve optimal condition, pH needs to be monitored and maintained. We also used TCW as a complete growth media for P.pastoris where a maximum OD600nm of 8.7 was noted after 64 hours (Figure 1B). In addition, TCW agar plates were used for plating E.coli, where the colonies appeared to be similar in morphology to that of LB agar plates (Figure 1C).
Since TCW is a naturally occurring liquid, its chemical composition varies from coconut to coconut . To validate and demonstrate the effect of this variation on growth, biomass of E.coli in different TCW samples were studied, which ranged from OD600nm of 0.15-2.5 after 12 hours of incubation (Figure 1D). This indicates that nutrients present in TCW vary with each coconut which could presumably be due to; the maturity, location and variety of coconut fruit, thus influencing its chemical profile. For instance, sugars like glucose and fructose are higher in young coconut (TCW) [15, 16] whereas, sucrose is the predominant sugar in mature coconut water [17, 18]. Kuberski et al., made similar observations where, sugar content in coconut water was identified as glucose, sucrose and fructose in the proportion of approximately 50%, 35% and 15%, respectively . In another study, Vigliar et al.,  demonstrated that the proportion of these sugars varied depending upon the stage of maturation of the coconut fruit i.e. glucose varies from 34% to 45%; sucrose from 53% to 18% and fructose from 12% to 36%. Similarly, other nutrient components of TCW vary significantly with degree of maturation like potassium, chloride, iron and sulphur .
Furthermore, we supplemented ammonium sulphate, amino acid cocktail, sodium sulphate and magnesium sulphate to TCW. Biomass of E.coli was improved by 4 fold in 25 mM (NH4)2SO4 supplemented TCW (1.9 at OD600nm), 3 fold in 0.36% amino acid supplemented TCW (1.2 at OD600nm) and 2.7 fold in 2 mM MgSO4 supplemented TCW (1.1 at OD600nm) as compared to TCW without supplementations (0.4 at OD600nm) whereas, no considerable improvement was observed for 5mM Na2SO4 supplementation (Figure 2C). In case of P.pastoris, (NH4)2SO4, amino acid cocktail and KH2PO4 were supplemented to TCW, where biomass improved 1.5 fold in (NH4)2SO4 supplemented TCW (11.6 at OD600nm) and 1.4 fold in amino acid cocktail (10.2 at OD600nm), as compared to TCW without supplementation (8.7 at OD600nm) while, a decreased biomass was observed with 50 mM KH2PO4 (6.7 at OD600nm) (Figure 2D). These results suggest that ammonium sulphate, amino acid and magnesium sulphate supplemented to TCW improves the biomass of both E.coli and P.pastoris considerably.
To validate the ammonium sulphate supplementation for normalizing batch to batch variation of TCW, five samples from different locations were tested. Where, 2–10 fold increase in biomass of E.coli in 25 mM (NH4)2SO4 supplemented TCW was observed as compared to TCW without supplementation (Figure 3B). Also, these five samples were pooled together and OD600nm 0.6 was noted while, upon addition of 25 mM (NH4)2SO4 it increased to 1.2. This signifies that the supplementation of TCW with 25 mM (NH4)2SO4 can be used for large scale applications as well, since several coconut fruits would be required to obtain sufficient volume of TCW.
Carbon and nitrogen estimation of TCW and its correlation with growth
Chemical profile of TCW used in this study
TCW 1 (μg/ml)
TCW 2 (μg/ml)
TCW 3 (μg/ml)
TCW 4 (μg/ml)
TCW 5 (μg/ml)
TCW 6 (μg/ml)
Total amino acids metabolites 1
Total carbohydrate 2
3.9 g/100 ml
3.82 g/100 ml
2.82 g/100 ml
2.80 g/100 ml
2.32 g/100 ml
2.63 g/100 ml
±0.611 g/100 ml
Total Nitrogen 3
33.2 mg/100 ml
17.542 mg/100 ml
33.60 mg/100 ml
15.0 mg/100 ml
57.2 mg/100 ml
28.630 mg/100 ml
±13.78 mg/100 ml
As anticipated from growth patterns of E.coli and P.pastoris (discussed earlier), the above estimation shows that carbohydrate was present in high concentration with less variation among each samples whereas, total nitrogen showed greater difference (SD > 13 mg/ml). Moreover, in Figure 3B, total nitrogen and amino acid concentration in each six different TCW samples was noted to correlate to its growth pattern. Where the sample with best OD600nm (TCW-5) corresponded to that of highest nitrogen concentration (see Table 2) among others and likewise. Thereby, supporting the assumption discussed earlier, that nitrogen sources are the limiting factor for inconsistent growth rate observed between different TCW samples.
TCW as an expression media
Many popular bacterial expression system, contain components of the lac operon, which can be induced by IPTG. A growth media used for expression of recombinant proteins should not interfere with IPTG induction of the target protein. For example, presence of lactose or high concentration of glucose in the media interferes with the regulation of lac operator, which could result in leaky expression or no expression of the target protein [23, 24]. Robert and Barbara, demonstrated that addition of 1% glucose to the medium will prevent leaky expression in lac based vector systems . Since, TCW is devoid of lactose and also contains ~1% glucose , it can be used as a potential media for the expression of recombinant proteins.
Recombinant protein expression in P.pastoris is regulated by AOX1 promoter (most widely used), which is induced by methanol; hence the expression media should be devoid of all other carbon sources . TCW contains sugars like glucose, fructose, sucrose etc., which would handicap protein expression. Generally, YPD media is used to generate biomass and is transferred into buffered minimal methanol medium (Invitrogen, USA) for inducing the AOX1 promoter to express the protein of interest. Alternatively, TCW can be used to generate biomass in place of YPD media. If proper optimization for complete utilization of the above mentioned carbon sources is achieved then TCW would be a potential media for protein expression in P.pastoris as well.
Successful expression of MBP, MBP-TEV and mEos2 was observed in TCW and TCW-S, which was comparable that of expression in LB. However, difference in growth rate of E.coli and P.pastoris was observed, as there was inconsistency of nitrogen source in TCW, which was normalized by the supplementation of TCW with 25 mM (NH4)2SO4. Therefore, the use of TCW alone is not advisable. In order to obtain consistency of growth, 25 mM (NH4)2SO4 supplementation is recommended. In future, other nitrogen sources can be supplemented to obtain higher saturation density in E.coli as well as other microbes. Thus, we conclude that TCW can be employed as a natural, inexpensive and efficient growth media for expression of recombinant proteins.
We express our sincere thanks to Prof. Ramaswamy.S, The CEO of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Platforms (C-CAMP), NCBS-TIFR, Bangaluru, India. Special gratitude to Dr.Kannan Rangiah, Technology Manager of Metabolomics Facility, (C-CAMP) for his immense help in mass spectroscopic estimation and data analysis and Bangalore test house, (Bangaluru, India) for their help in estimation of total carbohydrates and total nitrogen in TCW. We would also like to thank Dr.Taslimarif Saiyed, COO, C-CAMP for his support. We extend our thanks to Mr. Sumukh Mysore of PTC, C-CAMP for his constructive criticism and insightful advice during the study.
- Broadhurst J: The effect of meat and meat extract media upon the fermentative activity of Streptococcci. Journal Infect Dis. 1913, 13: 404-440. 10.1093/infdis/13.3.404.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Atlas RM: Handbook of microbiological media for the examination of food Kentucky. 2006, USA: CRC prssView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vigliar R, Sdepanian VL, Fagundes Neto U: Biochemical profile of coconut water from coconut palms planted in an inland region. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2006, 82: 308-312. 10.2223/JPED.1508.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mauney JR, Hillman WS, Miller CO, Skoog F, Clayton RA, Strong FM: Bioassay, purification and properties of a growth factor from coconut. Physiol Plant. 1952, 5: 485-497. 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1952.tb07541.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Renato G, Graßl W, Rau U: Coconut water as a novel culture medium for the biotechnological production of Schizophyllan. J Nature Stud. 2009, 7 (2): January-JuneGoogle Scholar
- Lin MT, Dianese JC: A coconut-agar medium for rapid detection of aflotoxin production by aspergillus spp. Am Phytophathological Soc. 1976, 66: 1466-1469. 10.1094/Phyto-66-1466.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oloke JK, Glick BR: Expression of melanin and insecticidal protein from Rhodotorula glutinis in Escherichia coli. Afr J Biotechnol. 2006, 5: 327-332.Google Scholar
- Unagul P, Santachai C, Phadungruengluij S, Manopsuphantharika M, Tanticharoen M, Verduyn C: Coconut water as a medium additive for the production of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n3) Schizochytriummangrovei Sk-02. Bioresour Technol. 2007, 98: 281-287. 10.1016/j.biortech.2006.01.013.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuntiya A, Hanmoungjai P, Techapun C, Sasaki K, Seesuriyachan P: Influence of pH, sucrose concentration and agitation speed on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus using coconut water as a raw material substitute. Int J Sci Technol. 2010, 4: 318-330.Google Scholar
- Prabakaran G, Hoti SL, Manonmani AM, Balaraman K: Coconut water as a cheap source for the production of δ endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, a mosquito control agent. Acta Trop. 2008, 105: 35-38. 10.1016/j.actatropica.2007.09.002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Boughton BA, Callahan DL, Silva C, Bowne J, Nahid A, Rupasinghe T, Tull DL, McConville MJ, Bacic A, Roessner U: Comprehensive profiling and quantitation of amine group containing metabolites. Anal Chem. 2011, 83: 7523-7530. 10.1021/ac201610x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Michel D, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Fred S: Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem. 1956, 28: 350-356. 10.1021/ac60111a017.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guebel DV, Nudel BC, Giuliettietti AM: A simple and rapid micro-Kjeldahl method for total nitrogen analysis. Biotechnol Tech. 1991, 5: 427-430. 10.1007/BF00155487.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Presser KA, Ratkowsky DA, Ross T: Modelling the growth rate of Escherichia coli as a function of pH and lactic acid concentration. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997, 63: 2355-2360.Google Scholar
- Jackson JC, Gordon A, Wizzard G, Mccook K, Rolle R: Changes in chemical composition of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water during maturation of the fruit. J Sci Food Agri. 2004, 84: 1049-1052. 10.1002/jsfa.1783.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ogundiya MO: Glucose content of nut water in four varieties of coconut palm. (Cocos nucifera) J Sci Food Agric. 1991, 56: 399-402. 10.1002/jsfa.2740560315.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pue AG, Rivu W, Sundarrao C, Singh K: Preliminary studies on changes in coconut water during maturation of the fruit. Sci New Guinea. 1992, 18: 81-84.Google Scholar
- Santoso U, Kubo K, Ota T, Tadokoro T, Maekawa A: Nutrient composition of kopyor coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.). Food Chem. 1995, 51: 299-304.Google Scholar
- Kuberski T, Roberts A, Linehan B, Bryden RN, Teburae M: Coconut water as a rehydration fluid. N Z Med J. 1979, 90: 98-100.Google Scholar
- Thampan PK, Rethinam P: Coconut products for health and medicine. Indian Coconut J. 2004, 35: 6-15.Google Scholar
- Neerathilingam M, Markley JL: Auto-induction medium containing glyphosate for high-level incorporation of unusual aromatic amino acids into proteins. Biotechniques. 2010, 49 (3): 659-661. 10.2144/000113491.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Studier FW: Protein production by auto-induction in high-density shaking cultures. Protein Exp Purif. 2005, 41: 207-234. 10.1016/j.pep.2005.01.016.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gombert AK, Kilikian BV: Recombinat gene expression in Escherichia coli cultivation using lactose as inducer. J Biotechnol. 1998, 60: 47-54. 10.1016/S0168-1656(97)00185-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Novy R, Morris B: Use of glucose to control basal expression in the pET System. In Novations. 2001, 13: 8-10.Google Scholar
- Kapust RB, Waugh DS: Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein is uncommonly effective at promoting the solubility of polypeptides to which it is fused. Protein Sci. 1999, 8: 1668-1674. 10.1110/ps.8.8.1668.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Joan Lin C, Cregg JM: Heterologous protein expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2000, 24: 45-66. 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2000.tb00532.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.