- Research article
- Open Access
GADD153 expression does not necessarily correlate with changes in culture behavior of hybridoma cells
© Mallory et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007
- Received: 02 August 2007
- Accepted: 10 December 2007
- Published: 10 December 2007
The acute sensitivity of some hybridoma cell lines to culture-related stresses severely limits their productivity. Recent developments in the characterization of the stress signals modulating the cellular phenotype revealed that the pro-apoptotic transcription factor Gadd153 could be used as a marker to facilitate the optimization of mammalian cell cultures. In this report, we analyzed the expression of Gadd153 in Sp2/0-Ag14 murine hybridoma cells grown in stationary batch culture and subjected to two different culture optimization paradigms: L-glutamine supplementation and ectopic expression of Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic gene.
The expression of Gadd153 was found to increase in Sp2/0-Ag14 cells in a manner which coincided with the decline in cell viability. L-glutamine supplementation prolonged Sp2/0-Ag14 cell survival and greatly suppressed Gadd153 expression both at the mRNA and protein level. However, Gadd153 levels remained low after L-glutamine supplementation even as cell viability declined. Bcl-xL overexpression also extended Sp2/0-Ag14 cell viability, initially delayed the induction of Gadd153, but did not prevent the increase in Gadd153 protein levels during the later phase of the culture, when cell viability was declining. Interestingly, L-glutamine supplementation prevented Gadd153 up-regulation in cells ectopically expressing Bcl-xL, but had no effect on cell viability.
This study highlights important limitations to the use of Gadd153 as an indicator of cell stress in hybridoma cells.
- Batch Culture
- Large Scale Culture
- Gadd153 Expression
- Culture Health
- Improve Cell Viability
Mammalian cell lines provide several advantages over other cellular systems for the production of recombinant proteins, most notably the correct processing and modification of mammalian proteins . Unfortunately, several mammalian cell lines undergo apoptotic death upon exposure to stresses originating from large scale cultures (nutrient starvation, hypoxia, shear stress, osmotic stress), severely limiting their productivity . Therefore, substantial efforts have been made in the past few years to devise strategies that reduce the loss of cell viability and increase the productive life of the cells. This includes 1) culture supplementation with limiting nutrients  and 2) cellular engineering by transfecting cell lines with cDNA molecules encoding anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g. Bcl-2 family proteins) .
Recent efforts have also focused on the characterization of the stress-induced signaling pathways leading to changes in the cellular phenotype [5, 6]. Of particular interest is the identification of stress-related markers that would facilitate the optimization of mammalian cell culture processes. One such promising marker is Gadd153, a basic domain-leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor of the C/EBP family . A pro-apoptotic protein, Gadd153 has been shown to be up-regulated by several stresses found in large scale cultures, such as amino acid or glucose starvation [8, 9], endoplasmic reticulum stress , osmotic stress  and hypoxia . Gadd153 mRNA and protein levels are increased during the decline phase of NS0  and CHO cultures , and nutrient supplementation is sufficient to decrease Gadd153 expression and improve cell survival in batch culture [13, 14]. While its involvement in the induction of apoptosis in NS0 cultures has recently been disputed , the tight regulation of Gadd153 by culture-related stresses makes it a promising indicator of culture health.
The mouse hybridoma Sp2/0-Ag14 (Sp2/0) cell line offers several advantages for studying the regulation of hybridoma cell viability. Firstly, this cell line is acutely sensitive to culture-related stresses. In particular, Sp2/0 cells rapidly undergo apoptosis after 4 days of stationary batch culture due to L-glutamine depletion . Thus, the viability of Sp2/0 cells can be greatly improved by L-glutamine supplementation on culture day 4 . Secondly, Sp2/0 cells express low levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 . This makes this cell line readily amenable to cellular engineering experiments involving the ectopic expression of these anti-apoptotic proteins [16, 18].
In this report, we studied the regulation of Gadd153 in wild type Sp2/0 cells and in Sp2/0 cells overexpressing Bcl-xL. Our results show that, while Gadd153 is tightly regulated by L-glutamine in both cell lines, Gadd153 protein levels remained low after L-glutamine supplementation, even as cell viability progressively decreased. Furthermore, reducing Gadd153 levels by L-glutamine supplementation in the Bcl-xL-expressing cell line did not impact on cell viability. This indicates that the usefulness of Gadd153 as a marker of the health of mammalian cell cultures is limited.
Gadd153 is induced in declining Sp2/0 cultures
Modulation of Gadd153 expression by L-glutamine supplementation
Bcl-xL overexpression delays Gadd153 induction in batch cultures of Sp2/0 cells
L-glutamine supplementation prevents the induction of Gadd153 in Bcl-xL-Sp2/0 cells in the absence of improvement in culture health
The optimization of mammalian cell culture processes would greatly benefit from the availability of a cellular marker that would 1) accurately reflect the health of the culture and 2) respond to strategies aimed at improving cell viability. Because its expression is induced by several stresses encountered during the large scale culture of mammalian cells, the pro-apoptotic transcription factor Gadd153 was recently proposed to be an indicator of apoptosis occurring in cell cultures [13, 14].
To validate the suitability of Gadd153 as a stress marker for hybridomas, we studied its expression in Sp2/0 cells. Even though it does not secrete immunoglobulins , its high sensitivity to culture-related stresses and its low expression of the anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL make the Sp2/0 cell line a useful model for the study of optimization strategies aimed at improving cell viability. Monitoring the expression of Gadd153 in Sp2/0 cells grown under stationary batch culture conditions, we observed that both Gadd153 protein and RNA levels were markedly increased during the decline phase of the culture (Figs. 1 and 2). This is in line with previous studies [13, 14] and confirm that, in batch culture, Gadd153 expression inversely correlates with Sp2/0 cell viability. These data also suggest that approaches based on the use of the Gadd153 promoter to induce the regulated expression of a gene of interest  should be applicable to the Sp2/0 cell model.
We also examined the regulation of Gadd153 under two conditions known to improve the behavior of the Sp2/0 cell line in batch culture: L-glutamine supplementation and the ectopic expression of Bcl-xL. We observed that Gadd153 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in Sp2/0 cultures supplemented with L-glutamine (Fig. 2). A similar effect was also seen when Bcl-xL-overexpressing Sp2/0 cultures were supplemented with L-glutamine (Fig. 4). This response of Gadd153 is not surprising, considering that Gadd153 has been shown previously to be induced by amino acid starvation , that L-glutamine is the major limiting nutrient in Sp2/0 cells grown in stationary batch cultures , and that L-glutamine potently represses Gadd153 expression . Thus, our results confirm those of Lengwehasatit and Dickson with the NS0 myeloma  and Murphy et al. in CHO cells  that Gadd153 expression is responsive to nutrient supplementation in a cell line of biotechnological interest.
Our data also revealed that the reduction in Gadd153 protein expression upon L-glutamine-supplementation persisted for the rest of the culture period, even as cell viability continued to decrease. This indicates that supplementing the culture with L-glutamine at the peak of Sp2/0 cell viability is sufficient to override further increases in Gadd153 protein levels, whatever the nature of the stresses leading to the loss of Sp2/0 cell viability. This phenomenon was not observed in other studies involving batch cultures because of the nature of the experimental design. Effectively, while Murphy et al.  limited their analysis of Gadd153 expression to 6 h after feeding, Lengwehasatit and Dickson  did a more thorough analysis of Gadd153 expression over several days of batch culture, but performed repeated nutrient supplementations during the culture period. Thus, our data indicate that while the expression of Gadd153 correlates well with the health of Sp2/0 cells in batch culture, it loses its utility as a stress marker upon supplementing the culture with L-glutamine. The cause of this lack of response of Gadd153 to the declining health of the L-glutamine-supplemented Sp2/0 cell culture remains unknown. An interesting possibility is that other stresses, such as the accumulation of lactate or ammonia, which are known to contribute to the reduction in hybridoma cell viability in stationary batch culture, interfere with the modulation of the expression of Gadd153.
We extended our studies to the use of Sp2/0 cells engineered to express high levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL. This manipulation was shown previously to significantly improve the behavior of Sp2/0 cells in batch culture [16, 18]. Interestingly, the ectopic expression of Bcl-xL significantly prolonged Sp2/0 cell viability, which was accompanied by a delay in the increase in expression of Gadd153. However, L-glutamine-supplementation of the Bcl-xL-Sp2/0 cultures lead to a sustained decrease in Gadd153 protein expression in the absence of any benefit regarding cell viability. Because engineering mammalian cells to ectopically express anti-apoptotic genes is a major strategy for the improvement of cell lines of biotechnological importance , our results indicate that care should be taken when selecting Gadd153 protein expression as an indicator of the improvement in cell viability achieved with these approaches.
The pro-apoptotic protein Gadd153 is acutely up-regulated by several stresses encountered during the large scale culture of mammalian cells. As such, its use as an indicator of cell stress can facilitate the optimization of cell cultures. However, our data highlight important limitations to the use of Gadd153 as a stress marker in mammalian batch cultures. Whether these limitations will be encountered in other cell lines or when other feeding mixtures or culture optimization strategies are used remains to be determined.
Unless stated otherwise, all reagents were from Sigma-Aldrich (Oakville, ON). L-glutamine was prepared fresh as 200 mM stock solutions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS: 9.1 mM Na2HPO4, 1.7 mM NaH2PO4, 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.4) and adjusted to pH 7.2.
Sp2/0 murine hybridoma cells were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD) and cultured in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Media (IMDM) supplemented with 5% Fetal Clone (Hyclone, Logan, UT), 100 U/mL penicillin, 100 μg/mL streptomycin and 4 mM L-glutamine (hereafter referred to as complete IMDM). The pTEJ8- and pTEJ8-Bcl-xL-transfected Sp2/0 cells were described previously  and were cultured in complete IMDM supplemented with 750 μg/mL G-418. Cell culture was performed at 37°C under a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2.
Stationary batch culture and nutrient supplementation was done as described . Briefly, exponentially growing Sp2/0 cells were centrifuged (500 × g, 10 min), washed once with warm PBS, and resuspended in complete IMDM at a concentration of 5 × 104 cells/mL. Samples were then taken at the indicated time intervals for the determination of cell viability using the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, and for total RNA and protein isolation. Culture supplementation with L-glutamine (4 mM final concentration) was done at the day where the maximal number of viable cells was observed in the controlled cultures, which is on culture day 4 for wild type Sp2/0 and pTEJ8-Sp2/0 cells and day 5 for the Bcl-xL-Sp2/0 transfectants .
Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
Total RNA isolation was performed as previously described . Reverse transcription (RT) was carried out using conventional methods  in the presence of 1 μg RNA, 0.63 pmol/μL random hexamers (Canadian Life Technologies, Burlington ON), and 0.025 U/μL of Murine Moloney Leukemia Virus (M-MLV) reverse transcriptase (Canadian Life Technologies). For semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cDNA dilutions were prepared so that all the samples yielded a comparable glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) signal upon amplification. PCR was done using a PTC-100HB thermocycler (MJ Research Inc., Waltham, MA) with the following cycling parameters: 5 cycles of touchdown PCR (95°C for 1 min, 65°C-1°C/cycle for 1 min, 68°C for 1 min) followed by 25 cycles of amplification (95°C for 1 min, 60°C for 1 min and 68°C for 1 min). The following primers pairs were used: GAPDH (Genebank: NM 008084): 5'ATGGTGAAGGTCGGTGTGAACGGA3' (sense primer) and 5'TTACTCCTTGGAGGCCATGTAGGC3' (antisense primer); Gadd153 (Genebank X67083): 5'ATGGCAGCTGAGTCCCTGCCT3' (sense primer) and 5'TCACATGCTTGGCGCTGGCGC3' (antisense primer). Samples were taken at cycles 21, 24, 27 and 30, and the amplicons were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining.
Protein extracts were prepared using a urea-based lysis buffer (62.5 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 6 M urea, 10% glycerol, 2% SDS, 0.00125% bromophenol blue, 5% 2-mercaptoethanol), according to a procedure described by Shah et al.. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto Hybond P membranes (GE Healthcare, Baie d'Urfé, QC). Transfer efficiency was routinely monitored by staining the membrane with Ponceau S. Immunoblotting was done by first blocking the membrane for 1 h at room temperature in Blotto (5% non fat dried milk in 0.02 M Tris-HCl, 0.14 M NaCl, 0.1% Tween 20, pH 7.6). The membrane was then incubated (1 h, room temperature) with the following primary antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc, Santa Cruz, CA) diluted in blotto: mouse monoclonal GADD153 antibody (clone B3, 1/200 dilution) and rabbit polyclonal Hsp60 antibody (1/2000 dilution). Detection of Hsp60 was performed to ensure equal protein loading of the wells. Detection by chemiluminescence was done by incubating the membrane for 1 h at room temperature with the appropriate secondary antibodies coupled to horseradish peroxidase (diluted 1/5000 in blotto) followed by the ChemiGlow reagent (Alpha Innotech, San Leandro, CA). Data acquisition was done with the Fluorchem 8000 Image Analysis System (Alpha Innotech).
Statistical significance was determined using a one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's post-hoc test.
We thank Curtis Harnett for critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by a Discovery grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).
- Barnes LM, Bentley CM, Dickson AJ: Advances in animal cell recombinant protein production: the GS-NSO expression system. Cytotechnology. 2000, 32: 109-123. 10.1023/A:1008170710003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hu WS, Aunins JG: Large-scale mammalian cell culture. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 1997, 8 (2): 148-153. 10.1016/S0958-1669(97)80093-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Franek F: Starvation-induced programmed death of hybridoma cells: prevention by amino acid mixtures. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 1995, 45: 86-90. 10.1002/bit.260450112.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuysterman D, Krampe B, Swiderek H, Al-Rubeai M: Using cell engineering and omic tools for the improvement of cell culture processes. Cytotechnology. 2007, 53: 3-22. 10.1007/s10616-007-9055-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nissom PM, Sanny A, Kok YJ, Hiang YT, Chuah SH, Shing TK, Lee YY, Wong KT, Hu WS, Sim MY, Philp R: Transcriptome and proteome profiling to understanding the biology of high productivity CHO cells. Mol Biotechnol. 2006, 34 (2): 125-140. 10.1385/MB:34:2:125.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Dyk DD, Misztal DR, Wilkins MR, Mackintosh JA, Poljak A, Varnai JC, Teber E, Walsh BJ, Gray PP: Identification of cellular changes associated with increased production of human growth hormone in a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line. Proteomics. 2003, 3 (2): 147-156. 10.1002/pmic.200390023.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luethy JD, Fargnoli J, Park JS, Fornace AJ, Holbrook NJ: Isolation and characterization of the hamster gadd153 gene. Activation of promoter activity by agents that damage DNA. J Biol Chem. 1990, 265 (27): 16521-16526.Google Scholar
- Marten NW, Burke EJ, Hayden JM, Straus DS: Effect of amino acid limitation on the expression of 19 genes in rat hepatoma cells. Faseb J. 1994, 8 (8): 538-544.Google Scholar
- Carlson SG, Fawcett TW, Bartlett JD, Bernier M, Holbrook NJ: Regulation of the C/EBP-related gene GADD153 by glucose deprivation. Mol Cell Biol. 1993, 13 (8): 4736-4744.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang XZ, Lawson B, Brewer JW, Zinszner H, Sanjay A, Mi LJ, Boorstein R, Kreibich G, Hendershot LM, Ron D: Signals from the stressed endoplasmic reticulum induce C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP/GADD153). Mol Cell Biol. 1996, 16 (8): 4273-4280.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kultz D, Madhany S, Burg MB: Hyperosmolality causes growth arrest of murine kidney cells. Induction of GADD45 and GADD153 by osmosensing via stress-activated protein kinase 2. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273 (22): 13645-13651. 10.1074/jbc.273.22.13645.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Price BD, Calderwood SK: GADD45 and GADD153 messenger RNA levels are increased during hypoxia and after exposure of cells to agents which elevate the levels of the glucose-regulated proteins. Cancer Res. 1992, 52 (13): 3814-3817.Google Scholar
- Lengwehasatit I, Dickson AJ: Analysis of the role of GADD153 in the control of apoptosis in NS0 myeloma cells. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2002, 80 (7): 719-730. 10.1002/bit.10422.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Murphy TC, Woods NR, Dickson AJ: Expression of the transcription factor GADD153 is an indicator of apoptosis for recombinant chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2001, 75 (6): 621-629. 10.1002/bit.1190.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cudna RE, Dickson AJ: Engineering responsiveness to cell culture stresses: growth arrest and DNA damage gene 153 (GADD153) and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in NS0 myeloma cells. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006, 94 (3): 514-521. 10.1002/bit.20861.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Charbonneau JR, Furtak T, Lefebvre J, Gauthier ER: Bcl-xL expression interferes with the effects of L-glutamine supplementation on hybridoma cultures. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2003, 81 (3): 279-290. 10.1002/bit.10467.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gauthier ER, Piché L, Lemieux G, Lemieux R: Role of bcl-xL in the control of apoptosis in murine myeloma cells. Cancer Research. 1996, 56: 1451-1456.Google Scholar
- Charbonneau JR, Gauthier ER: Prolongation of murine hybridoma cell survival in stationary batch culture by Bcl-xL expression. Cytotechnology. 2000, 34 (1/2): 131-139. 10.1023/A:1008186302600.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shulman M, Wilde CD, Kohler G: A better cell line for making hybridomas secreting specific antibodies. Nature. 1978, 276 (5685): 269-270. 10.1038/276269a0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- de Boer L, Gray PP, Sunstrom NA: Enhanced productivity of G1 phase Chinese hamster ovary cells using the GADD153 promoter. Biotechnol Lett. 2004, 26 (1): 61-65. 10.1023/B:BILE.0000009462.10772.a4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang Q, Lau SS, Monks TJ: Induction of gadd153 mRNA by nutrient deprivation is overcome by glutamine. Biochem J. 1999, 341 (Pt 1): 225-231. 10.1042/0264-6021:3410225.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gauthier ER, Madison SD, Michel RN: Rapid RNA isolation without the use of commercial kits: application to small tissue samples. Pflugers Arch. 1997, 433 (5): 664-668. 10.1007/s004240050328.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ausubel F, Brent R, Kingston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA, Struhl K: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc New York (NY). Edited by: Janssen K. 1995, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
- Shah GM, Poirier D, Duchaine C, Brochu G, Desnoyers S, Lagueux J, Verreault A, Hoflack JC, Kirkland JB, Poirier GG: Methods for biochemical study of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism in vitro and in vivo. Anal Biochem. 1995, 227 (1): 1-13. 10.1006/abio.1995.1245.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.