Cultivation to improve in vivo solubility of overexpressed arginine deiminases in Escherichia coliand the enzyme characteristics
© Wang and Li; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 20 March 2014
Accepted: 3 June 2014
Published: 7 June 2014
Overexpression of foreign genes in Escherichia coli cells is an efficient means to obtain recombinant proteins. The technique is, however, often hampered by misfolding, degradation, aggregation and formation in inclusion bodies of products.
In this study, we reported that in vivo solubility of overexpressed arginine deiminases (ADI) improved by changing the cultivation conditions. ADI is enzymes that convert L-arginine to L-citrulline. After codon optimization, we synthesized the ADI gene of Pseudomonas putida and constructed it for overexpression in E. coli cells. The rADI products were mainly in inclusion body forms. We performed a series of optimization to enhance solubility of the protein. Co-expression with the GroES-GroEL chaperone team increased approximately 5-fold of the rADI activity. In addition the combination of L-arginine and D-glucose in the Luria-Bertani (LB) growth medium further increased the total activity to about 15 times. Separate L-arginine and D-glucose or the addition of other saccharides or amino acids had no such effects. The solubilization effects of the combination of L-arginine and D-glucose were further confirmed in the overexpression of another ADI from Listeria welshimeri. The enzymatic and conversion characteristics of the rADI products were further determined.
Combined addition of L-arginine and D-glucose in the LB medium significantly improved in vivo solubility of rADI proteins. The present study suggested a new strategy to increase the solubilization of overexpressed recombinant proteins in E. coli cells.
Escherichia coli cells are an efficient factory to produce foreign proteins because of high-cell density, well-known genetics background and the simplest genetic manipulation [1, 2]. However, high expressions of recombinant proteins often result in misfolding, aggregation, degradation, low activity and formation in inclusion-bodies of products, which greatly hampers associated researches and industrial and medical applications [2–6]. In order to improve the solubility of recombinant proteins, many strategies have been developed, such as co-expression with chaperones, secretion expression of recombinant proteins and protein fusion techniques [7, 8]. In this study, we reported that combined addition of D-glucose and L-arginine in the Luria-Bertani (LB) medium to cultivate E. coli cells were efficient to enhance the solubility of recombinant arginine deiminases.
Arginine deiminase (EC220.127.116.11; ADI) hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-citrulline, releasing ammonia. Arginine deiminase, combining with ornithine transcarbamylase and carbamate kinase forms the arginine deiminase pathway , which is widely distributed in the microorganisms that are able to utilize arginine as an energy source . By depleting extracellular supply of L-arginine, ADI is a potential anti-tumor agent for its efficient inhibition effects on the growth of arginine-auxotrophic tumor cells, especially hepatocellular carcinomas and melanomas [10–12]. ADI is also considered a useful producer of L-citrulline at industrial scale . So, many ADI genes from different sources, including Mycoplasma arginini[11, 12, 14–16], Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus sanguis and Giardia intestinalis[20, 21] have been cloned and expressed in E. coli cells. However, the recombinant ADI proteins were mainly existed in inclusion body forms, which is a bottleneck in its research and development. We overexpressed arginine deiminases from different resources in the E. coli cells for industrial conversion L-arginine to L-citrulline. Our recombined ADI proteins named rADI, were similarly mostly in inclusion bodies. In this study, we made comprehensive optimizations to improve solubility of the rADI proteins and found that the combined addition of L-arginine and D-glucose in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium distinctly increased the in vivo solubility of rADI in E. coli cells. We studied the enzymatic and conversion characteristics of the rADI.
Construction and expression of ADI gene in E. coli
Wen et al. reported that truncation of a non-catalytic region in a 1,3-1,4-β-D-glucanase from Fibrobacter succinogenes improved enzymatic activity and thermotolerance. The crystal structures of ADI from Mycoplasma arginini and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that the enzymes shared the same catalytic triad (Cys-His-Glu) and the Cys active site [26, 27]. The catalytic region mainly located in the C-terminal region of ADI. To explore the effects of deleting the N-terminal non-catalytic fragment on solubility and activity of rADI, our construction based on pET30a-ADI, a plasmid that expressed a truncated ADI protein lacking the N-terminal 30 amino acids (T-rADI, see Figure 1). Unfortunately, instead of improving solubility of the product, the truncation resulted in complete inactivation of the enzyme (Figure 2B, lanes 2 & 4).
Co-expression with chaperone teams
The total activity of rADI co-expressed with different molecular chaperone
Total activity (U/ml)
0.64 ± 0.04
3.14 ± 0.15
3.22 ± 0.06
0.60 ± 0.08
0.74 ± 0.01
Cultivation-improved solubilization of rADI
Kozai et al.  reported that the addition of L-arginine in the refolding solution was able to clearly increase the enzymatic activity of denatured ADI proteins. However, our experiments showed that the presence of L-arginine had no effect on the in-vitro solubilization of rADI proteins in the inclusion body form. We further tested whether L-arginine is helpful to improve the in vivo solubilization of ADI proteins in E. coli cells before the formation of inclusion bodies. E. coli cells are routinely cultivated in the LB medium, which contains peptones and yeast extracts as the carbon and nitrogen sources. We added different concentrations of L-arginine in the LB medium to cultivate the pET30a-ADI plasmid-harboring E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. Low concentrations of L-arginine (less than 1%) had no effect on the solubilization of rADI proteins, while higher concentrations (1%-5%) caused alkalization of the medium (pH10.0), in which E. coli cells developed poorly or no growth at all. If we adjusted the media containing high L-arginine concentrations to pH 7.0 or added L-arginine hydrochloride to replace L-arginine, which did not change the pH of the medium significantly, E. coli cells were able to grow normally but the solubilization of rADI proteins did not improve.
Effects of combined additions of different sugars and amino acids on the enzymatic activities of rADI condition optimization
2.08 ± 0.05
9.43 ± 0.02
1.76 ± 0.01
1.60 ± 0.06
1.41 ± 0.01
2.78 ± 0.02
9.33 ± 0.04
0.86 ± 0.04
0.74 ± 0.03
0.70 ± 0.05
2.92 ± 0.03
2.93 ± 0.05
3.85 ± 0.07
4.35 ± 0.02
3.95 ± 0.04
3.18 ± 0.03
3.20 ± 0.08
3.31 ± 0.05
3.60 ± 0.02
3.20 ± 0.08
3.26 ± 0.07
9.31 ± 0.01
2.35 ± 0.04
1.96 ± 0.04
2.49 ± 0.10
3.22 ± 0.06
9.39 ± 0.03
1.93 ± 0.06
1.97 ± 0.01
2.69 ± 0.02
It was noted that higher concentrations of D-glucose (1% or more) supported better growth of cells, but the activities of crude extracts were prominently decreased. Higher concentrations of supplemented L-arginine (1% or more) inhibited the growth of cells because of alkalization of the medium, even with the presence of D-glucose, which caused no effect in the improvement of enzymatic activities (Table 2). For example, at the concentration of 1% L-arginine (combined with 0.5% D-glucose), the OD600 of culture broth was less than 1.0 after 24 hrs of incubation and at the 2% concentration, there were no growth. Surprisingly, when we added different concentrations of L-arginine hydrochloride, instead of L-arginine in the LB medium with D-glucose, no improvement was observed for the solubilization of rADI proteins (Table 2). When L-arginine was combined with other sugars, such as D-galactose, D-sucrose and D-maltose, the solubilization of rADI proteins was not improved. When L-arginine was replaced with non-substrate amino acids of ADI, such as L-tryptophan, L-citrulline and L-glycine no improvement was observed for the solubilization of rADI proteins (Table 2).
We also assayed the effects of the combined addition of 0.5% L-arginine and 0.5% D-glucose on the expression of another ADI, which was from Listeria welshimeri serovar 6b str. SLCC5334 (NC_008555). The total activity of the enzyme was 0.1187 ± 0.04 U/ml in the presence of 0.5% L-arginine and 0.5% D-glucose, which was 7.2-fold higher than it expressed alone (0.0165 ± 0.01 U/ml) and 2.9-fold higher than it co-expressed with pGro7 (0.0412 ± 0.02 U/ml). The increase rate was similar to that for the rADI from Pseudomonas putida. These results suggested that the combined addition of L-arginine and D-glucose was applicable in solubilization of different ADI proteins.
Enzymatic and conversion characteristics of rADI
The effect of metal ions and reagents on the activity of rADI
Relative remaining activity (%) of rADI
100.0 ± 2.9
100.0 ± 2.4
99.6 ± 2.5
100.5 ± 0.8
100.1 ± 3.5
102.5 ± 4.4
104.1 ± 2.5
100.1 ± 4.9
96.4 ± 3.2
102.1 ± 1.5
96.2 ± 3.9
91.2 ± 2.4
97.4 ± 2.1
101.5 ± 4.2
98.1 ± 2.3
81.5 ± 1.9
94.9 ± 2.8
73.7 ± 2.5
100.6 ± 1.9
90.1 ± 0.1
80.2 ± 1.2
33.6 ± 1.5
100.3 ± 4.6
94.9 ± 1.8
22.2 ± 2.5
4.9 ± 1.6
71.0 ± 0.3
13.6 ± 1.2
Previously, it had been observed that the improvement of the substrate L-arginine for correct refolding of denatured ADI proteins in the refolding solution . However, L-arginine had no effect on the in vitro solubilization of rADI proteins in inclusion body forms. Thus, in vivo solubilization is important for potential industrial applications of rADI proteins. In the laboratories, the E. coli cells are routinely cultivated in LB medium with tryptone and yeast extracts as the carbon and nitrogen sources. The present study showed that the combined addition of L-arginine and D-glucose in the LB medium significantly improved in vivo solubilization of rADI proteins, but the addition of L-arginine or D-glucose alone did not have the effect. L-arginine have to enter E. coli cells to play the in vivo solubilization functions. We suggested that the functions of L-arginine in solubilization of ADI were probably via the binding to the proteins, thus preventing the formation of inclusion bodies.
The role of D-glucose is still unknown during this process. There are three possibilities of its roles: (1) D-glucose helped L-arginine to transport through the cell membrane (2) D-glucose balanced the medium pH (3) D-glucose maintained the intracellular pH or metabolic processes. High concentrations of L-arginine caused alkalization of medium, which extensively inhibited the growth of cells. However, L-arginine hydrochloride did not change the medium pH significantly. The addition of the compound had no effect on the solubilization of the rADI proteins, even at low concentrations along with D-glucose. Thus, balancing medium pH or intracellular pH is not the function of D-glucose in the in vivo solubilization of rADI proteins.
Streptococcus lactis and Oenococcus oeni are able to utilize L-arginine as a source of energy via the L-arginine catabolism pathway [33, 34]. Poolman et al. reported that L-arginine entered these cells by an arginine-ornithine antiporter in S. lactis, which was initiated in the presence of a fermentable sugar. Only after initiated, L-arginine was able to subsequently enter cells via the ornithine and arginine concentration gradients formed during arginine metabolism [31, 32]. It was suggested fermentable sugars provided the energy for the entrance of L-arginine into cells. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the genome of E. coli BL21(DE3) (GenBank accession no. CP001509) had some predicted proteins related to the arginine-ornithine antiporter, such as an arginine/ornithine antiporter transporter, an arginine/ornithine transporter subunit and an arginine/ornithine transport system ATPase . We supposed that the increased solubilization was associated with the in vivo interactions between L-arginine and newly synthesized rADI proteins during the process of refolding, which requires further determination.
Combined addition of L-arginine and D-glucose in the LB medium significantly improved in vivo solubility of rADI proteins but the addition of L-arginine or D-glucose alone did not have the effect. With the support of GroEL-GroES, the promotion of combined D-glucose and L-arginine was more significant. The studies present in this paper suggested a new strategy to increase the solubilization of overexpressed recombinant proteins in E. coli cells.
Strains and cultivation conditions
Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study
Genotype or description
E. coli DH5α
F-,supE44,ΔlacU169(φ80lacZΔM15),hsdR17, recA1,endA1, gyrA96, thi-1, relA1
E. coli BL21(DE3)
F-, ompT, hsdSB(rB-mB-), gal, dcm(DE3)
Encoding DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE / GroES-GroEL
Construction of recombinant plasmids
The ADI gene studied in this study is taken from P. putida (GenBank accession no. P41142). We optimized the gene sequence according to the codon frequency table of E. coli BL21(DE3) using the “codon randomization” strategy . The artificial gene and its corresponding amino acid sequences (Figure 1) were deposited in GenBank under the accession no. KJ411883. After synthesized at Biosune (Shanghai, China), the gene was amplified using a specific primer pair (Forward: CATGCCATGGCTATGAGCGCCGAAAAACAGAAGTATG; Reverse: CCCAAGCTTGATAATCGATAGGGTCGCGAACAATG) to generate the digestion sites of endonucleases NcoI and HindIII (italics). After purification, the amplified fragment was digested using the restriction enzymes and ligated into plasmid pET-30a(+), named pET30a-ADI, which was confirmed by sequencing. The construction of recombinant plasmids, transformation and protein expression were performed according to the protocol described by Sambrook and Russell .
Co-expression with the chaperone teams
The plasmids pGro7, pG-KJE8, pTf16 and pKJE7 encode different chaperone teams (Table 4). The pET30a-ADI was co-expressed with these four plasmids respectively. E. coli BL21(DE3) cells harboring plasmid pET30a-ADI alone or together with a chaperone-encoding plasmid were cultivated in 5 ml of LB medium containing 40 μg/ml kanamycin and 20 μg/ml chloramphenicol for the selection of recombinants. After overnight shaking at 37°C, the culture was inoculated (1%) into fresh LB medium containing antibiotics and 0.04% L-arabinose (pG-KJE8 was induced by 5 μg/ml tetracycline and 0.04% L-arabinose). The culture was shaken at 37°C to induce the expression of chaperones. When the OD600 of the culture reached 0.6-0.8, isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) was added to a final concentration of 0.1 mM to induce the expression of rADI. After additional 24 hrs of incubation at 16°C, the cells were harvested by centrifugation at 8,000 × g and 4°C for 10 min. The cell pellets were washed, resuspended in Tris-NaCl buffer (50 mM Tris, 150 mM NaCl, pH 8.0) and broken by sonication on ice. After centrifugation at 12,000 × g and 4°C for 30 min, the separated supernatant and cell debris were assayed enzymatic activities and in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, 10% gel concentration).
Cultivation-improved solubilization of rADI
The E. coli BL21(DE3) cells harboring the combined plasmids of pET30a-ADI and pGro7 were cultivated as described above. To assay the effects of cultivation on the solubility of rADI, different saccharides (D-glucose, D-sucrose, D-galactose or D-maltose) were added to a final concentration of 0.5% in the LB medium containing the antibiotics and L-arabinose. Together with the addition of IPTG, different amino acids (L-arginine, L-tryptophan, L-citrulline and L-glycine) were added to a final concentration of 0.5% when the culture OD600 reached 0.6-0.8. The cultures were incubated for additional 24 hrs at 16°C. E. coli BL21(DE3) harboring pET-30a(+) was used as negative control.
Purification of rADI
After harvested, cells were broken by sonication, and the supernatants were applied to the Ni-NTA affinity chromatography (GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, U.K.) to purify rADI. The protein concentration was determined using the Bradford method (Bio-Rad, Munich, Germany). Different fractions were collected and assayed enzymatic activities and in SDS-PAGE (10%).
Activity assays of rADI
The rADI activity was determined using a modified method of diacetyl monoxime thiosemicarbazide [17, 37]. 40 mM L-arginine was dissolved in 500 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0). After the addition of rADI, the mixture was incubated at 40°C for 10 min. Then, acid-ferric solution (containing 15% H2SO4, 60% H3PO4 and 0.005% FeCl3) and DAM-TSC solution (containing 1% diacetyl monoxime and 0.06% thiosemicarbazide) were added to stop the reaction and the mixture was heated at 100°C for 10 min for coloration. The amount of L-citrulline was evaluated by measuring the optical density at 530 nm. The protein concentration was determined using Bradford-assay with bovine serum albumin as standard. One unit of the ADI activity was defined as the amount of enzymes to produce one μmol L-citrulline per minute under the assay conditions. All the assays were performed in triplicate. The total enzymatic activity was defined as units per milliliter of culture and the specific enzymatic activity was shown as units per milligram of purified enzyme.
Conversion rate of crude enzyme
The crude enzymes were prepared from sonication-broken cells using the above-described methods. 20 ml crude extracts from 100 ml culture broth were divided into four equal parts. The conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline was assayed in 200 ml reaction buffer (500 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0) at 30°C or 40°C. 20 g L-arginine was added at the beginning or batch-supplemented from 5 g to 20 g at different time points.
This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Key Program (No. 31130004) and the NSFC for Distinguished Young Scholars (No. 30825001).
- Georgiou G, Valax P: Expression of correctly folded proteins in Escherichia coli. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 1996, 7: 190-197.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baneyx F, Mujacic M: Recombinant protein folding and misfolding in Escherichia coli. Nat Biotechnol. 2004, 22: 1399-1408.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gasser B, Saloheimo M, Rinas U, Dragosits M, Rodriguez-Carmona E, Baumann K, Giuliani M, Parrilli E, Branduardi P, Lang C, Porro D, Ferrer P, Tutino ML, Mattanovich D, Villaverde A: Protein folding and conformational stress in microbial cells producing recombinant proteins: a host comparative overview. Microb Cell Fact. 2008, 7: 11-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Frokjaer S, Otzen DE: Protein drug stability: a formulation challenge. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2005, 4: 298-306.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schrodel A, de Marco A: Characterization of the aggregates formed during recombinant protein expression in bacteria. BMC Biochem. 2005, 6: 10-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Platas G, Rodriguez-Carmona E, Garcia-Fruitos E, Cano-Garrido O, Villaverde A: Co-production of GroELS discriminates between intrinsic and thermally-induced recombinant protein aggregation during substrate quality control. Microb Cell Fact. 2011, 10: 79-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sorensen HP, Mortensen KK: Advanced genetic strategies for recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. J Biotechnol. 2005, 115: 113-128.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- de Marco A, Deuerling E, Mogk A, Tomoyasu T, Bukau B: Chaperone-based procedure to increase yields of soluble recombinant proteins produced in E. coli. BMC Biotechnol. 2007, 7: 32-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zuniga M, Perez G, Gonzalez-Candelas F: Evolution of arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2002, 25: 429-444.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ni Y, Schwaneberg U, Sun ZH: Arginine deiminase, a potential anti-tumor drug. Cancer Lett. 2008, 261: 1-11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Takaku H, Takase M, Abe S, Hayashi H, Miyazaki K: In vivo anti-tumor activity of arginine deiminase purified from Mycoplasma arginini. Int J Cancer. 1992, 51: 244-249.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Misawa S, Aoshima M, Takaku H, Matsumoto M, Hayashi H: High-level expression of Mycoplasma arginine deiminase in Escherichia coli and its efficient renaturation as an anti-tumor enzyme. J Biotechnol. 1994, 36: 145-155.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kakimoto T, Shibatani T, Nishimura N, Chibata I: Enzymatic production of L-citrulline by Pseudomonas putida. Appl Microbiol. 1971, 22: 992-999.Google Scholar
- Miyazaki K, Takaku H, Umeda M, Fujita T, Huang WD, Kimura T, Yamashita J, Horio T: Potent growth inhibition of human tumor cells in culture by arginine deiminase purified from a culture medium of a Mycoplasma-infected cell line. Cancer Res. 1990, 50: 4522-4527.Google Scholar
- Takaku H, Misawa S, Hayashi H, Miyazaki K: Chemical modification by polyethylene glycol of the anti-tumor enzyme arginine deiminase from Mycoplasma arginini. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1993, 84: 1195-1200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Takaku H, Matsumoto M, Misawa S, Miyazaki K: Anti-tumor activity of arginine deiminase from Mycoplasma arginini and its growth-inhibitory mechanism. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1995, 86: 840-846.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu YM, Sun ZH, Ni Y, Zheng P, Liu YP, Meng FJ: Isolation and identification of an arginine deiminase producing strain Pseudomonas plecoglossicida CGMCC2039. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008, 24: 2213-2219.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim JE, Jeong DW, Lee HJ: Expression, purification, and characterization of arginine deiminase from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis ATCC 7962 in Escherichia coli BL21. Protein Expr Purif. 2007, 53: 9-15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Burne RA, Parsons DT, Marquis RE: Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the genes of the arginine deiminase system of Streptococcus sanguis NCTC 10904. Infect Immun. 1989, 57: 3540-3548.Google Scholar
- Knodler LA, Schofield PJ, Gooley AA, Edwards MR: Giardia intestinalis: purification and partial amino acid sequence of arginine deiminase. Exp Parasitol. 1997, 85: 77-80.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Knodler LA, Sekyere EO, Stewart TS, Schofield PJ, Edwards MR: Cloning and expression of a prokaryotic enzyme, arginine deiminase, from a primitive eukaryote Giardia intestinalis. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273: 4470-4477.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shibatani T, Kakimoto T, Chibata I: Crystallization and properties of L-arginine deiminase of Pseudomonas putida. J Biol Chem. 1975, 250: 4580-4583.Google Scholar
- Menzella HG: Comparison of two codon optimization strategies to enhance recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2011, 10: 15-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Donovan RS, Robinson CW, Glick BR: Review: optimizing inducer and culture conditions for expression of foreign proteins under the control of the lac promoter. J Ind Microbiol. 1996, 16: 145-154.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wen TN, Chen JL, Lee SH, Yang NS, Shyur LF: A truncated Fibrobacter succinogenes 1,3-1,4-beta-d-glucanase with improved enzymatic activity and thermotolerance. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2005, 44: 9197-9205.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Das K, Butler GH, Kwiatkowski V, Clark AD, Yadav P, Arnold E: Crystal structures of arginine deiminase with covalent reaction intermediates: mplications for catalytic mechanism. Structure. 2004, 12: 657-667.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu X, Galkin A, Herzberg O, Dunaway-Mariano D: Arginine deiminase uses an active-site cysteine in nucleophilic catalysis of L-arginine hydrolysis. J Am Chem Soc. 2004, 126: 5374-5375.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nishihara K, Kanemori M, Kitagawa M, Yanagi H, Yura T: Chaperone coexpression plasmids: differential and synergistic roles of DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE and GroEL-GroES in assisting folding of an allergen of Japanese cedar pollen, Cryj2, in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998, 64: 1694-1699.Google Scholar
- Yan X, Hu S, Guan YX, Yao SJ: Coexpression of chaperonin GroEL/GroES markedly enhanced soluble and functional expression of recombinant human interferon-gamma in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012, 93: 1065-1074.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kozai M, Sasamori E, Fujihara M, Yamashita T, Taira H, Harasawa R: Growth inhibition of human melanoma cells by a recombinant arginine deiminase expressed in Escherichia coli. J Vet Med Sci. 2009, 71: 1343-1347.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu SQ, Pilone GJ: A review: arginine metabolism in wine lactic acid bacteria and its practical significance. J Appl Microbiol. 1998, 84: 315-327.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu SQ, Pritchard GG, Hardman MJ, Pilone GJ: Arginine catabolism in wine lactic acid bacteria: is it via the arginine deiminase pathway or the arginase-urease pathway?. J Appl Bacteriol. 1996, 81: 486-492.Google Scholar
- Poolman B, Driessen AJ, Konings WN: Regulation of arginine-ornithine exchange and the arginine deiminase pathway in Streptococcus lactis. J Bacteriol. 1987, 169: 5597-5604.Google Scholar
- Tonon T, Lonvaud-Funel A: Metabolism of arginine and its positive effect on growth and revival of Oenococcus oeni. J Appl Microbiol. 2000, 89: 526-531.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jeong H, Barbe V, Lee CH, Vallenet D, Yu DS, Choi SH, Couloux A, Lee SW, Yoon SH, Cattolico L, Hur CG, Park HS, Segurens B, Kim SC, Oh TK, Lenski RE, Studier FW, Daegelen P, Kim JF: Genome sequences of Escherichia coli B strains REL606 and BL21(DE3). J Mol Biol. 2009, 394: 644-652.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Russell DW, Sambrook J: The Condensed Protocols from Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2006, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory PressGoogle Scholar
- Ni Y, Liu Y, Schwaneberg U, Zhu L, Li N, Li L, Sun Z: Rapid evolution of arginine deiminase for improved anti-tumor activity. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011, 90: 193-201.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.