- Methodology article
- Open Access
Rapid targeted gene disruption in Bacillus anthracis
© Saldanha et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 13 April 2013
Accepted: 13 September 2013
Published: 18 September 2013
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease recognized to affect herbivores since Biblical times and has the widest range of susceptible host species of any known pathogen. The ease with which the bacterium can be weaponized and its recent deliberate use as an agent of terror, have highlighted the importance of gaining a deeper understanding and effective countermeasures for this important pathogen. High quality sequence data has opened the possibility of systematic dissection of how genes distributed on both the bacterial chromosome and associated plasmids have made it such a successful pathogen. However, low transformation efficiency and relatively few genetic tools for chromosomal manipulation have hampered full interrogation of its genome.
Group II introns have been developed into an efficient tool for site-specific gene inactivation in several organisms. We have adapted group II intron targeting technology for application in Bacillus anthracis and generated vectors that permit gene inactivation through group II intron insertion. The vectors developed permit screening for the desired insertion through PCR or direct selection of intron insertions using a selection scheme that activates a kanamycin resistance marker upon successful intron insertion.
The design and vector construction described here provides a useful tool for high throughput experimental interrogation of the Bacillus anthracis genome and will benefit efforts to develop improved vaccines and therapeutics.
In 1876 Robert Koch ushered in microbial pathology by establishing a causal relationship between Bacillus anthracis microbes and the disease anthrax . Distributed worldwide, Bacillus anthracis is a gram positive bacterium capable of infecting the widest range of animals of any known pathogen . The bacterium is normally found as an endospore in soil where a chance encounter with an animal can permit entry through a wound, food or inhalation leading to germination of the spore into a vegetative bacterium. The vegetative phase is relatively short consisting of only 20–40 generations. The bacterium is believed to spend large periods of time in spore form thus slowing evolutionary changes and explaining the monomorphic nature of the bacterium . Human infection occurs most commonly through accidental exposure to infected animals or animal products, such as hides or carcasses. 95% of infections occur via the cutaneous route and more rarely through gastrointestinal and pulmonary routes [4, 5]. The disease is difficult to diagnose because early symptoms are relatively non-specific and, when left untreated without prompt antibiotic intervention, can lead to fatality with rates ranging from 20% for cutaneous exposure to as high as 100% for pulmonary anthrax. The high morbidity is due to a rapid overwhelming of host defenses, fulminant septicemia of vegetative cells and the action of bacterial toxins expressed from vegetative cells. Once inside the host, the spores are engulfed by macrophages where they are transported to lymph nodes and germinate to become vegetative cells that eventually disseminate through blood and lymph causing septicemia and toxemia. The vegetative cells express three monomeric proteins: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) from genes encoded on the pXO1 virulence plasmid . PA facilitates toxin entry by binding to receptors TEM8 and CMG2 on the surface of human and animal cells. Binding triggers PA cleavage leading to formation of a heptameric or octameric pore that binds and translocates EF and LF into the cytosol. In binary complexes with PA, EF and LT are referred to as edema toxin (ET) and lethal toxin (LT) respectively. ET is an adenyl-cyclase that enhances cAMP production and disrupts water homeostasis leading to kidney failure and death. LT is a zinc protease that cleaves mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK) and induces pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular apoptosis . Antibodies predominantly directed against PA are the basis of current vaccines that are used prophylactically .
The dramatic lethal consequences of an accidental spore release at Sverdlovsk in the former Soviet Union and the deliberate release of anthrax through letters in the US in 2001 have renewed interest in neutralizing this pathogen [8, 9]. The complete sequence of Bacillus anthracis and several of its close relatives is available [10, 11]. This potentially allows for systematic study of all the genes contributing to the success of this important pathogen. However, a complete dissection of Bacillus anthracis is hampered by the difficulty of transforming the bacteria (approximately 102-105 transformants per μg DNA) and by relatively few simple ways to manipulate the genome genetically [12–15]. Shatalin and Neyfakh used a temperature sensitive (ts) plasmid to deliver a selectable marker flanked by upstream and downstream regions homologous to the gene to be disrupted . Through the manipulation of temperatures and screening of antibiotic markers, a chromosomal integrant could be obtained. Janes and Stibitz have created an elegant set of plasmids to make markerless gene disruptions in two distinct steps . In the first step, a plasmid is constructed with an I-SceI site flanking a genetic marker to be replaced and delivered on a ts replicon using an erythromycin selection marker. On introduction of this plasmid in Bacillus anthracis, the plasmid can integrate into the chromosome at the low frequency of homologous recombination using the homology of genomic sequences cloned into the plasmid. On shifting to a restrictive temperature the plasmid is cured and it is possible to select for those rare chromosomal integration events. After appropriate steps to verify the success of the first step, a second plasmid expressing I-SceI is introduced. This leads to cleavage at the I-SceI site and stimulating recombination via double strand break repair which either leads to the desired recombination product or restoration to the parental chromosomal configuration. The desired product must be obtained through physical screening of individual colonies. Finally, Leppla and colleagues have exploited a selectable marker flanked by the loxP sites of the site-specific recombinase Cre to leave a single loxP site at the site of marker integration which could then direct larger genome scale deletions through multiple rounds of loxP marker insertion at distant sites and site-specific recombination between them .
Many group II introns exhibit the ability to insert into DNA through a now well understood series of biochemical reactions . The natural mobility of the Ll.LtrB intron has been harnessed into a highly efficient gene targeting technology to achieve gene disruption through intron insertion in a number of gram positive and gram negative bacterial hosts [17, 18]. The ability to engineer a group II intron to insert at desired genomic locations, distinguishes group II introns from other insertional elements like transposons that either integrate randomly at a low frequency or insert at a high frequency but only at a specific genomic locus like the attTn7 site. Frequently, the engineered group II introns insert at their newly programed insertion sites in the genome at frequencies high enough to be detectable by simple colony screening. The high efficiency of insertion allows gene disruption without the introduction of an antibiotic marker into the chromosome and the efficient sequential creation of multiple knockouts at disparate chromosomal sites. We have adapted the Ll.LtrB intron insertion technology for application to Bacillus anthracis and demonstrate the remarkable simplicity with which gene inactivation through intron insertion can be rapidly achieved.
Results and discussion
Group II intron based gene inactivation
Group II introns in general, and the Ll.LtrB group II intron in particular, have been engineered into an efficient gene disruption system [17, 19, 20]. We have adapted this system for rapid gene inactivation in Bacillus anthracis. Group II introns are autocatalytic RNA molecules . Some group II introns exhibit a property of “homing” where the intron recognizes the DNA equivalent of its cognate exon junctions and inserts itself via retrotransposition . The biochemical basis of this intron insertion has been deduced [22–24]. For example, the Ll.LtrB intron interrupting a relaxase in Lactococcus lactis is excised from its flanking exons through RNA catalysis assisted by an intron encoded protein LtrA . The LtrA protein acts as a scaffold for efficient RNA directed catalysis but also encodes a reverse transcriptase and DNA endonuclease that are used for intron integration into DNA targets . The spliced Ll.LtrB intron remains associated with LtrA to form a RNP particle. The intron component of the RNP can recognize DNA exon sequences resembling exon junctions through a combination of exon recognition elements (EBS1/δ and EBS2) within the intron and DNA recognition preferences of the LtrA protein . On encountering a suitable target, the RNA component of the RNP can integrate through reverse splicing of the intron RNA into the DNA target, followed by an LtrA directed cleavage of the bottom DNA strand which generates a primer that allows copying of the intron into DNA via the reverse transcriptase activity of LtrA.
A vector permitting group II intron gene inactivation using screening
A vector using genetic selection for detection of group II intron gene insertion
The vectors described here introduce a new tool for genetic manipulation of Bacillus anthracis. The ability to directly select for an insertional inactivation of a gene using very few manipulations will accelerate our ability to probe the role of the numerous uncharacterized genes in the genome of this important pathogen and uncover new targets for vaccination strategies or useful targets for therapeutic intervention. While the vectors were developed and tested in Bacillus anthracis, the plasmid backbone used to build the vector is derived from pUB110 a Staphylococcus aureus plasmid that has been extensively used in Bacillus subtilis. These vectors are therefore likely to be able to be used across the Bacillus genus including other members of the Bacillus cereus group such as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.
Bacterial strains and culture
E. coli strains: DH5α™ with genotype F– Φ80lacZΔM15 Δ(lacZYA-argF) U169 recA1 endA1 hsdR17 (rK–, mK+) phoA supE44 λ– thi-1 gyrA96 relA1 and dam - dcm - (Life Technologies) was used for routine cloning. Since transformation efficiency of Bacillus anthracis is sensitive to dam methylation , plasmid DNA for transformation into Bacillus anthracis was prepared from a dam methylase deficient host E. coli (New England Biolabs C2925H) with genotype: ara-14 leuB6 fhuA31 lacY1 tsx78 glnV44 galK2 galT22 mcrA dcm-6 hisG4 rfbD1 R(zgb210::Tn10) TetS endA1 rspL136 (StrR) dam13::Tn9 (CamR) xylA-5 mtl-1 thi-1 mcrB1 hsdR2.
Bacillus anthracis (Sterne 34 F2) was obtained from Colorado Serum Co. (Denver, CO).
Bacteria were grown in Luria-Bertaini (LB) broth or Brain Heart Infusion (BHI). Antibiotics were added for plasmid maintenance or selection at the following concentrations: ampicillin at 100 μg/mL; erythromycin at 400 μg/mL for E. coli and 4 μg/mL for Bacillus anthracis and kanamycin was used at 50 μg/mL for E. coli and 20 μg/mL for Bacillus anthracis.
The pRB373 plasmid was purchased from ATCC (cat. no. 77373). The sequence of pRB373 is unpublished but based on restriction enzyme digestion it contains a BsrG1 site. Because of this, a construct designed to retarget the Ll.LtrB intron to insert within IS605 needed to be created in three steps. In the first, a PCR fragment containing the changes necessary to retarget the intron to IS605 was digested with BsrGI and HindIII and cloned into the intron donor plasmid pNL9161 of Staphylococcus aureus digested with the same enzymes . To optimize pairing at the +1 site of the target, this intermediate plasmid was modified by mutating C + 1 to G + 1. The resulting plasmid was then digested with SphI and SfoI, and the fragment containing the Cd-inducible promoter, LtrB intron, and LtrA protein was gel purified and cloned between the SphI and SmaI sites of pRB373 to yield plasmid IS605-tt.
Preparation of plasmid DNA from E. coli, transformation of E. coli, and recombinant DNA techniques were carried out by standard procedures . The plasmid pRBEryNtr was constructed in several steps. In the first step an erythromycin resistance marker was PCR amplified using pNL9162 as the template and oligonucleotide primers SphI Ery 5’ GAATGAGGCATGCTACACCTCCGGATA3’ and AgeI Ery 5’ GAT C ACCGGTCACACGAA AAACAAGTTAAGGGATGCAG3’ using NEB PCR mastermix. This yielded a 1.2 Kb fragment which was then purified and digested with SphI and AgeI. It was then cloned into pRB373 (which had been digested with the same enzymes) to yield pRB373Ery. The potent Bacillus Ntr promoter identified by Gat et al.,  was amplified from Bacillus anthracis Sterne genomic DNA using PCR primers 5’ SphI Nitro 5’ GatC GCATGC CTGAGTTGGATCATCATTATATGAAAGGC3’ and 3’ Nitro HindIII XhoI EcoRI 5’Gatc gaattc ctcgag gag AAGCTTTTTTTCA TATGTATAC ATC ATA TTC TGC C3’. The PCR product was digested with SphI and EcoR1 then cloned into pRB373Ery digested with the same enzymes to yield pRB373 EryNtr. The coding sequence of a select agent compliant kanamycin allele was optimized for expression in low GC organisms and synthesized (Genscript, Piscataway, NJ). The synthetic fragment also included a self-splicing td intron in the antisense orientation inserted between codons 15 and 16 of the kanamycin gene and cloned into pRB373. A HindIII-XhoI fragment with the group II intron Targetron was cloned into pRB373 digested with the same enzymes. Finally, PCR mutagenesis was used to generate the mutations necessary to retarget the intron to BAS4597 & BAS4553 and introduced as HindIII-BsrG1 fragments into the vector as described above.
Intron design & generation of PCR products for intron retargeting
Targetron insertion sites and scores
Gene insertion site
-30 to -1 NT upstream
+1 to +15 NT downstream
IS605 435|436 s
BAS4553 343|344 s
BAS4597 1794|1795 s
Primers used for retargeting
Bacillus anthracisgenomic DNA isolation
Bacillus anthracis was grown overnight and 2 mL were harvested for genomic isolation with the Epicentre Biotechnologies DNA & RNA purification kit (cat. no. MC85200). Final yield was 70 μL at ~1.3 mg/mL.
Electroporation conditions described in Koehler et al. were followed with a few modifications . A culture of Bacillus anthracis Sterne was grown overnight in BHI. The following day, 1 mL of the overnight culture was used to inoculate 100 mL of BHI supplemented with 0.5% glycerol in a 1000 mL baffled Erlenmeyer flask and incubated at 37°C with shaking at 225 rpm until the culture reached an OD600 of ~ 0.6. At this point the culture was chilled on an ice bath and filtered through a filter assembly pre chilled to 4°C and washed with an ice cold electroporation buffer containing 10 mM Hepes pH 7.0 and 10% Glycerol (3×50 mL washes). The washed bacteria were resuspended from the filter using 10 mL of ice cold electroporation buffer, then aliquoted and flash frozen. Aliquots of electrocompetent Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) were electroporated with 3 μg of dam - dcm - plasmid DNA in a 4 mm gap cuvette. All electroporation was conducted on a BioRad Gene Pulser. Electroporation conditions were as follows: 2,500 V, 25 μF, 400 Ω. The time constant for the pulse was (on average) 6.5 ms. After electroporation, the cells were diluted with 1 mL of BHI augmented with 10% glycerol, 0.4% glucose and 10 mM MgCl2. The cells were incubated for one hour before plating on LB or BHI agar plates with 20 μg/mL kanamycin or 4 μg/mL erythromycin.
Generation of targetron insertions
A frozen glycerol stock of Bacillus anthracis Sterne transformed with the plasmid vector designed to insert into IS605 was used to inoculate LB augmented with 20 μg/mL kanamycin and shaken at 220 RPM at 37°C overnight. The overnight cultures were used to prepare fresh dilutions by inoculating 100 μL of the overnight culture into 25 mL LB augmented with 20 mg/mL kanamycin and shaken (220 RPM) at 37°C. When the cultures reached an OD600 of 0.6, 25 μL of 10 mM CdCl2 was added in order to induce the cadmium promoter controlling expression of the targetron. Cultures were induced for 90 min. Serial dilutions of the induced cultures were prepared and 100 μL aliquots taken from the 10-4 and 10-5 dilutions were plated on LB agar without antibiotic selection. Single colonies were tested for intron insertion via colony PCR using primers flanking the site of intron insertion. A frozen glycerol stock of Bacillus anthracis Sterne transformed with the plasmid vector designed to insert into BAS4597 or BAS4553 was used to inoculate LB augmented with 4 μg/mL erythromycin and shaken at 220 RPM at 37°C overnight. The overnight cultures were used to prepare fresh dilutions by inoculating 100 μL into 25 mL LB with 4 μg/mL erythromycin and shaken (220 RPM) at 37°C and grown to saturation. 0.2-0.5 mL of the saturated cultures was spread on LB agar plates containing kanamycin at 20 μg/mL and incubated at 37°C for three days. Any kanamycin resistant colony arising reflects a potential intron insertion and this was verified by colony PCR using primers flanking the site of intron insertion.
Colony PCR screening
Colonies were assessed for potential intron insertions by conventional PCR. Specific primers flanking the site of chromosomal insertion were designed and synthesized by Integrated DNA Technologies. DNA was amplified using 1 μL of LongAmp Taq DNA Polymerase (New England Biolabs), 2.5 μL of 5× LongAmp Taq Reaction Buffer, 0.4 μL of 10 mM dNTP Mix (New England Biolabs), nuclease-free water (Ambion), 200 nM of each primer and whole cell template in a final volume of 12.5 μL per reaction. The following cycling conditions were used: initial denaturation at 94°C for 30 sec, followed by 30 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 30 sec, annealing at 60°C for 45 sec and extension at 65°C for 3 min, with a final extension at 65°C for 10 min. Products were visualized using 1% ethidium bromide (Fisher Bioreagents) on a 1% agarose gel.
This work was supported by the Chem-Bio Diagnostics program contract # B102387M from the Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense program through the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). J.T.W.’s and A.M.L.’s participation in this work was supported by NIH grant GM037949 and Welch Foundation grant F-1607.
- Koch R: Die Ätiologie der Milzbrand Krankheit begründet auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Bacillus anthracis. Beitr Biol Pflanz. 1876, 2: 277-283.Google Scholar
- Beyer W, Turnbull PC: Anthrax in animals. Molecular aspects of medicine. 2009, 30 (6): 481-489. 10.1016/j.mam.2009.08.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Keim P, Van Ert MN, Pearson T, Vogler AJ, Huynh LY, Wagner DM: Anthrax molecular epidemiology and forensics: using the appropriate marker for different evolutionary scales. Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases. 2004, 4 (3): 205-213. 10.1016/j.meegid.2004.02.005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cote CK, Welkos SL, Bozue J: Key aspects of the molecular and cellular basis of inhalational anthrax. Microbes and infection / Institut Pasteur. 2011, 13 (14–15): 1146-1155.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- WHO: Anthrax in humans and animals. 2008, Geneva 27, Switzerland: WHO PressGoogle Scholar
- Okinaka RT, Cloud K, Hampton O, Hoffmaster AR, Hill KK, Keim P, Koehler TM, Lamke G, Kumano S, Mahillon J, et al: Sequence and organization of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes. J Bacteriol. 1999, 181 (20): 6509-6515.Google Scholar
- Bouzianas DG: Medical countermeasures to protect humans from anthrax bioterrorism. Trends in microbiology. 2009, 17 (11): 522-528. 10.1016/j.tim.2009.08.006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Meselson M, Guillemin J, Hugh-Jones M, Langmuir A, Popova I, Shelokov A, Yampolskaya O: The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979. Science. 1994, 266 (5188): 1202-1208. 10.1126/science.7973702.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Atlas RM: Bioterriorism: from threat to reality. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2002, 56: 167-185. 10.1146/annurev.micro.56.012302.160616.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ravel J, Jiang L, Stanley ST, Wilson MR, Decker RS, Read TD, Worsham P, Keim PS, Salzberg SL, Fraser-Liggett CM, et al: The complete genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames “Ancestor”. J Bacteriol. 2009, 191 (1): 445-446. 10.1128/JB.01347-08.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Read TD, Peterson SN, Tourasse N, Baillie LW, Paulsen IT, Nelson KE, Tettelin H, Fouts DE, Eisen JA, Gill SR, et al: The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria. Nature. 2003, 423 (6935): 81-86. 10.1038/nature01586.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Janes BK, Stibitz S: Routine markerless gene replacement in Bacillus anthracis. Infection and immunity. 2006, 74 (3): 1949-1953. 10.1128/IAI.74.3.1949-1953.2006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pomerantsev AP, Sitaraman R, Galloway CR, Kivovich V, Leppla SH: Genome engineering in Bacillus anthracis using Cre recombinase. Infection and immunity. 2006, 74 (1): 682-693. 10.1128/IAI.74.1.682-693.2006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shatalin KY, Neyfakh AA: Efficient gene inactivation in Bacillus anthracis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005, 245 (2): 315-319. 10.1016/j.femsle.2005.03.029.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Koehler TM: Bacillus anthracis physiology and genetics. Molecular aspects of medicine. 2009, 30 (6): 386-396. 10.1016/j.mam.2009.07.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lambowitz AM, Zimmerly S: Group II introns: mobile ribozymes that invade DNA. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology. 2011, 3 (8): a003616-10.1101/cshperspect.a003616.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Karberg M, Guo H, Zhong J, Coon R, Perutka J, Lambowitz AM: Group II introns as controllable gene targeting vectors for genetic manipulation of bacteria. Nature biotechnology. 2001, 19 (12): 1162-1167. 10.1038/nbt1201-1162.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Akhtar P, Khan SA: Two independent replicons can support replication of the anthrax toxin-encoding plasmid pXO1 of Bacillus anthracis. Plasmid. 2012, 67 (2): 111-117. 10.1016/j.plasmid.2011.12.012.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perutka J, Wang W, Goerlitz D, Lambowitz AM: Use of computer-designed group II introns to disrupt Escherichia coli DExH/D-box protein and DNA helicase genes. J Mol Biol. 2004, 336 (2): 421-439. 10.1016/j.jmb.2003.12.009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rawsthorne H, Turner KN, Mills DA: Multicopy integration of heterologous genes, using the lactococcal group II intron targeted to bacterial insertion sequences. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006, 72 (9): 6088-6093. 10.1128/AEM.02992-05.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saldanha R, Mohr G, Belfort M, Lambowitz AM: Group I and group II introns. The FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. 1993, 7 (1): 15-24.Google Scholar
- Zimmerly S, Guo H, Perlman PS, Lambowitz AM: Group II intron mobility occurs by target DNA-primed reverse transcription. Cell. 1995, 82 (4): 545-554. 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90027-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zimmerly S, Guo H, Eskes R, Yang J, Perlman PS, Lambowitz AM: A group II intron RNA is a catalytic component of a DNA endonuclease involved in intron mobility. Cell. 1995, 83 (4): 529-538. 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90092-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guo H, Zimmerly S, Perlman PS, Lambowitz AM: Group II intron endonucleases use both RNA and protein subunits for recognition of specific sequences in double-stranded DNA. The EMBO journal. 1997, 16 (22): 6835-6848. 10.1093/emboj/16.22.6835.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Matsuura M, Saldanha R, Ma H, Wank H, Yang J, Mohr G, Cavanagh S, Dunny GM, Belfort M, Lambowitz AM: A bacterial group II intron encoding reverse transcriptase, maturase, and DNA endonuclease activities: biochemical demonstration of maturase activity and insertion of new genetic information within the intron. Genes & development. 1997, 11 (21): 2910-2924. 10.1101/gad.11.21.2910.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saldanha R, Chen B, Wank H, Matsuura M, Edwards J, Lambowitz AM: RNA and protein catalysis in group II intron splicing and mobility reactions using purified components. Biochemistry. 1999, 38 (28): 9069-9083. 10.1021/bi982799l.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Singh NN, Lambowitz AM: Interaction of a group II intron ribonucleoprotein endonuclease with its DNA target site investigated by DNA footprinting and modification interference. J Mol Biol. 2001, 309 (2): 361-386. 10.1006/jmbi.2001.4658.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Charpentier E, Anton AI, Barry P, Alfonso B, Fang Y, Novick RP: Novel cassette-based shuttle vector system for gram-positive bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004, 70 (10): 6076-6085. 10.1128/AEM.70.10.6076-6085.2004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bruckner R: A series of shuttle vectors for Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Gene. 1992, 122 (1): 187-192. 10.1016/0378-1119(92)90048-T.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhong J, Karberg M, Lambowitz AM: Targeted and random bacterial gene disruption using a group II intron (targetron) vector containing a retrotransposition-activated selectable marker. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003, 31 (6): 1656-1664. 10.1093/nar/gkg248.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gat O, Inbar I, Aloni-Grinstein R, Zahavy E, Kronman C, Mendelson I, Cohen S, Velan B, Shafferman A: Use of a promoter trap system in Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis for the development of recombinant protective antigen-based vaccines. Infection and immunity. 2003, 71 (2): 801-813. 10.1128/IAI.71.2.801-813.2003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marrero R, Welkos SL: The transformation frequency of plasmids into Bacillus anthracis is affected by adenine methylation. Gene. 1995, 152 (1): 75-78. 10.1016/0378-1119(94)00647-B.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yao J, Zhong J, Fang Y, Geisinger E, Novick RP, Lambowitz AM: Use of targetrons to disrupt essential and nonessential genes in staphylococcus aureus reveals temperature sensitivity of Ll.LtrB group II intron splicing. Rna. 2006, 12 (7): 1271-1281. 10.1261/rna.68706.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook Russel DW: Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 2001, NY: Cold Spring Harbor PressGoogle Scholar
- Koehler TM, Dai Z, Kaufman-Yarbray M: Regulation of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene: CO2 and a trans-acting element activate transcription from one of two promoters. J Bacteriol. 1994, 176 (3): 586-595.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.