- Research article
- Open Access
Incorporation of albumin fusion proteins into fibrin clots in vitro and in vivo: comparison of different fusion motifs recognized by factor XIIIa
© Sheffield and Eltringham-Smith; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
- Received: 24 August 2011
- Accepted: 20 December 2011
- Published: 20 December 2011
The transglutaminase activated factor XIII (FXIIIa) acts to strengthen pathological fibrin clots and to slow their dissolution, in part by crosslinking active α2-antiplasmin (α2AP) to fibrin. We previously reported that a yeast-derived recombinant fusion protein comprising α2AP residues 13-42 linked to human serum albumin (HSA) weakened in vitro clots but failed to become specifically incorporated into in vivo clots. In this study, our aims were to improve both the stability and clot localization of the HSA fusion protein by replacing α2AP residues 13-42 with shorter sequences recognized more effectively by FXIIIa.
Expression plasmids were prepared encoding recombinant HSA with the following N-terminal 23 residue extensions: H6NQEQVSPLTLLAG4Y (designated XL1); H6DQMMLPWAVTLG4Y (XL2); H6WQHKIDLPYNGAG4Y (XL3); and their 17 residue non-His-tagged equivalents (XL4, XL5, and XL6). The HSA moiety of XL4- to XL6-HSA proteins was C-terminally His-tagged. All chimerae were efficiently secreted from transformed Pichia pastoris yeast except XL3-HSA, and following nickel chelate affinity purification were found to be intact by amino acid sequencing, as was an N-terminally His-tagged version of α2AP(13-42)-HSA. Of the proteins tested, XL5-HSA was cross-linked to biotin pentylamine (BPA) most rapidly by FXIIIa, and was the most effective competitor of α2AP crosslinking not only to BPA but also to plasma fibrin clots. In the mouse ferric chloride vena cava thrombosis model, radiolabeled XL5-HSA was retained in the clot to a greater extent than recombinant HSA. In the rabbit jugular vein stasis thrombosis model, XL5-HSA was also retained in the clot, in a urea-insensitive manner indicative of crosslinking to fibrin, to a greater extent than recombinant HSA.
Fusion protein XL5-HSA (DQMMLPWAVTLG4Y-HSAH6) was found to be more active as a substrate for FXIIIa-mediated transamidation than seven other candidate fusion proteins in vitro. The improved stability and reactivity of this chimeric protein was further evidenced by its incorporation into in vivo clots formed in thrombosis models in both mice and rabbits.
- Fusion Protein
- Human Serum Albumin
- Fibrin Clot
- Recombinant Fusion Protein
- Thrombosis Model
Recombinant serum albumins provide an attractive scaffold for the delivery of attached therapeutic peptides or proteins [1, 2]. They are the most abundant proteins in the plasma of mammals, reaching concentrations of 40-80 mg/mL (0.6-1.0 mM) in humans . They are slowly cleared plasma proteins [3, 4] whose longevity in the circulation derives from a well-characterized mechanism of recycling via the major histocompatibility complex-related Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G (FcRn) [5–7]. Serum albumin is also unusual among plasma proteins in that it is not glycosylated , a property that simplifies its recombinant expression and production . If candidate therapeutic peptides or proteins can be fused to albumin in a manner that allows them to express their endogenous activity, the resulting fusion protein often demonstrates improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties due to acquisition of albumin-like circulatory characteristics . For these reasons, albumin has been fused to numerous proteins such as interferon , interleukin-2 , butrylcholinesterase , coagulation factors VII  and IX [13, 14], hirudin [15, 16], and barbourin , as well as to smaller peptides .
In order to address unmet clinical needs in the area of thrombosis, the pathological formation of clots within intact blood vessels, our laboratory previously investigated novel recombinant proteins comprised of portions of α2-antiplasmin fused to the N-terminus of human serum albumin . α2AP is cross-linked to fibrin clots by activated factor XIII (FXIIIa), where it promotes clot stability by inhibiting the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin [20, 21]. We  and others [22, 23] have demonstrated that competing α2AP-fibrin crosslinking results in fibrin clots that are more easily dissolved in vitro, suggesting potential applications of such competitors as adjuncts to thrombolytic therapy.
Previously, we attempted expression of three α2AP-HSA fusion proteins in Pichia pastoris, a methylotropic yeast shown to produce recombinant HSA in high yield and with indistinguishable biophysical properties to its plasma-derived counterpart . Our strategy was to retain the N-terminal sites of α2AP-fibrin crosslinking, especially Q14 , but to delete the C-terminal plasmin-binding and plasmin-trapping reactive centre loop of this serpin-type inhibitor. We sought to provide as native a protein environment as possible for the α2AP cross-linking motif by maximizing the portion of α2AP fused to HSA. However, only a chimeric protein comprised of α2AP residues 13-42 fused to HSA was secreted by the yeast; the two longer fusions involving residues 13-73 and 13-109 were not stably expressed. Moreover, α2AP(13-42)-HSA was partially proteolyzed within its α2AP moiety. While we demonstrated that α2AP(13-42)-HSA became a substrate of FXIIIa and competed for α2AP crosslinking to both small and macromolecular substrates, we could not demonstrate cross-linking to clots in vivo above background levels seen with recombinant HSA .
In the present study, we sought to improve the ability of HSA fusion proteins to compete with α2AP for FXIIIa-mediated cross-linking. The α2AP moiety was reduced to 12 residues (α2AP 13-23 followed by Lys24Ala), to avoid previously observed sites of proteolysis by P. pastoris proteases, and compared to two 12-residue artificial FXIIIa substrate peptides selected by phage display for high reactivity . These motifs were expressed with or without N-terminal His tags, to allow for purification of full length proteins away from partially proteolyzed products. We hypothesized that replacing α2AP 13-42 with shorter, potentially more active FXIIIa substrate motifs would improve the stability of fibrin cross-linkable HSA proteins and improve in vivo clot retention.
Oligonucleotides employed in this study
5'-TCGAGAAAAG ACATCATCAT CATCATCATA ACCAGGAGCA GGTGTCCCCA CTTACCCTCC TCGCTGGAGG TGGAGGGTAC-3'
XhoI-KpnI sense strand for XL1-HSA
5'-CCTCCACCTC CAGCGAGGAG GGTAAGTGGG GACACCTGCT CCTGGTTATG ATGATGATGA TGATGTCTTT TC-3'
XhoI-KpnI antisense strand for XL1-HSA
5- TCGAGAAAAG ACATCATCAT CATCATCATG ATCAGATGAT GCTGCCATGG CCAGCTGTGA CCCTGGGAGG CGGAGGGTAC -3'
XhoI-KpnI sense strand for XL2-HSA
5- CCTCCGCCTC CCAGGGTCAC AGCTGGCCAT GGCAGCATCA TCTGATCATG ATGATGATGA TGATGTCTTT TC-3'
XhoI-KpnI antisense strand for XL2-HSA
5'-TCGAGAAAAG ACATCATCAT CATCATCATT GGCAGCATAA AATCGATCTG CCATACAATG GTGCAGGAGG CGGAGGGTAC-3'
XhoI-KpnI sense strand for XL3-HSA
5'- CCTCCGCCTC CTGCACCATT GTATGGCAGA TCGATTTTAT GCTGCCAATG ATGATGATGA TGATGTCTTT TC-3'
XhoI-KpnI antisense strand for XL3-HSA
5'- TCGAGAAAAG AAACCAGGAG CAGGTGTCCC CACTTACCCT CCTCGCTGGA GGTGGAGGGT AC -3'
XhoI-KpnI sense strand for XL4-HSA
5'- CCTCCACCTC CAGCGAGGAG GGTAAGTGGG GACACCTGCT CCTGGTTTCT TTTC-3'.
XhoI-KpnI antisense strand for XL4-HSA
5'- TCGAGAAAAG AGATCAGATG ATGCTGCCAT GGCCAGCTGT GACCCTGGGA GGCGGAGGGT AC -3'
XhoI-KpnI sense strand for XL5-HSA
5'- CCTCCGCCTC CCAGGGTCAC AGCTGGCCAT GGCAGCATCA TCTGATCTCT TTTC -3'
XhoI-KpnI antisense strand for XL5-HSA
5'-TCGAGAAAAG ATGGCAGCAT AAAATCGATC TGCCATACAA TGGTGCAGGA GGCGGAGGGT AC-3'
XhoI-KpnI sense strand for XL6-HSA
5'-CCTCCGCCTC CTGCACCATT GTATGGCAGA TCGATTTTAT GCTGCCATCT TTTC-3'
XhoI-KpnI antisense strand for XL6-HSA
5'-ACGTGTCGAGA AAAGACATCA TCATCATCAT CATAACCAGG AGCAGGTGTC CCCAC-3'
Upstream primer for PCR to assemble H6α2AP(13-42)-HSA
5'-ACGTGGTACCG ACTCCTGGGG GACTCTTCAG-3'
Downstream primer for PCR to assemble H6α2AP(13-42)-HSA
Fusion protein expression, purification, and characterization
HSA fusion proteins were purified from media conditioned by transformed Pichia pastoris cells and induced with 0.5% vol/vol methanol, as previously described [18, 19, 28], except that the methanol induction phase of protein production was extended to 96 hours. At that point, the conditioned media was neutralized and clarified by centrifugation , treated with protease inhibitors (5 mM benzamidine and 0.1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride), and purified using Ni-NTA agarose chromatography (Qiagen). Purified proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using polyclonal affinity-purified goat anti-human α2AP antibodies (Affinity Biologicals) and murine monoclonal anti-HSA antibodies (Genway Biotech). They were also characterized by automated Edman degradation at the Advanced Protein Technology Centre of the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.
Transglutamination assays with biotinylated pentylamine
In order to quantify FXIIIa-catalyzed transglutamination of plasma-derived α2AP and recombinant HSA fusion proteins, a microtiter plate (Immulon 4 HBX, Thermo Scientific) protocol was developed. Test HSA-related proteins (1.7 μM) were first incubated for varying times in Tris-buffered saline (50 mM Tris-Cl pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl) containing 5 mM CaCl2 and 5 mM biotinylated pentylamine (BPA; EZ-Link pentylamine-biotin, Pierce) supplemented with 20 nM human FXIII (Enzyme Research Labs, ERL) and 1.0 IU/mL human thrombin (ERL). Reactions (0.1 mL) were stopped by addition of an equal volume of 20 mM EDTA pH 8.00 and transferred to microtiter plates. Microtiter plates were prepared for use by coating with 2.5 μg/mL mouse anti-HSA monoclonal antibody (Genway) in 50 mM sodium carbonate pH 9.6 overnight at 4°C. All other incubations were at room temperature. All washes were performed with Tris-buffered saline supplemented with 0.05% (vol/vol) Tween 20 (TBST), and repeated three times. Anti-HSA-coated plates were washed and then blocked for one hour in TBST, then washed again. Following transfer of the stopped transglutamination reaction mixtures to the plate, it was incubated with shaking for one hour and washed, prior to reaction of captured proteins with a 1:2500 dilution of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated streptavidin (Jackson Labs) in TBST for one hour. Following a final wash step, colour was developed by addition of 1.0 mg/ml p-nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt (PNPP) in diethanolamine buffer (1.02 M diethanolamine pH 9.8) (Thermo Scientific) and absorbance was quantified on an ELx808 plate reader (BioTek Instruments) at 405 nm for up to 15 minutes. In some reactions, the protocol was modified to measure transglutamination of α2AP by substituting anti-α2AP antibodies for anti-HSA antibodies, and purified human plasma-derived α2AP (ERL) for HSA-related proteins.
Transglutamination of fibrin(ogen)
FXIIIa-catalyzed transglutamination of the natural substrate fibrinogen was assessed using SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of cross-linking reactions as previously described . Briefly, 100 nM FXIII was first activated to FXIIIa by reaction with 5.0 IU/ml thrombin for 5 minutes at 37°C; thrombin was then inactivated using Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone to 10 μM final concentration, to prevent clotting on addition to fibrinogen. The resulting FXIIIa (50 nM) was reacted with 6.0 μM human fibrinogen (specifically depleted of plasminogen, von Willebrand factor, and fibronectin, ERL), and 1.0 μM substrate proteins in TBS containing 10 mM CaCl2.
Reactions were stopped by addition of SDS and analyzed on 8% SDS-polyacrylamide gels under reducing conditions, with immunoblotting and chemiluminescent development of antibody-decorated blots, as described .
In vitro clot lysis
As previously described , the formation and dissolution of human plasma clots was followed by recording changes in turbidity, using an ELx808 plate reader (BioTek Instruments) set to take absorbance readings at 340 nm every 30 seconds for 4 hours, and quantified as the area under the curve.
Retention of iodinated proteins in mouse vena cava treated with ferric chloride
Purified human fibrinogen (Sigma), human α2AP (ERL), or XL5-HSA recombinant proteins were iodinated using the Iodogen method as described by the manufacturer (Pierce), using either sodium 125I or 131I. Unincorporated radioactivity was removed by exhaustive dialysis versus phosphate-buffered saline. Specific activities of labelling exceeded 1 × 109 cpm/mg. Radioiodinated proteins were then tested in the mouse ferric chloride vena cava thrombosis model, modified from [29, 30]. CD-1 mice were anaesthetized using gaseous anaesthesia (3% isofluorane) at all times during this procedure, and a heating pad was employed to ensure maintenance of normal body temperature. A mid-line incision was made, first through the skin and secondly through the muscle layer. Viscera were gently displaced and haemostatic clamps employed to keep the incision open. At this time radioiodinated proteins (5 × 106 cpm in 0.1 ml sterile saline) were injected via the tail vein. The vena cava was then exposed and a 2 × 4 mm piece of Whatman paper soaked in 10% (w/vol) ferric chloride was applied. The viscera were covered with gauze soaked in warm saline during this time. The time from radioactive protein injection to application of ferric chloride was fixed at 5 minutes. Three minutes after its application, the filter paper was removed and viscera replaced. Thirty minutes later, the vena cava was re-exposed, the vessel was excised, and the clot was transferred to a tared tube for weighing, and then subjected to γ counting using either an Auto Gamma 5530 Minaxi γ counter (Perkin Elmer) or a Cobra II γ counter (Packard) to quantify incorporated radioactivity.
Retention of iodinated proteins in rabbit jugular vein thrombi
New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to a modified Wessler procedure  as previously described by this laboratory . Briefly, animals were initially anesthetized with 100 mg of ketamine, then maintained in the anesthetized state with 1.5% isoflurane. They were then cannulated via the carotid artery and the jugular veins isolated. One ml of whole blood was freshly drawn and anticoagulated with 1/9th volume of 3.8% w/vol sodium citrate. Two centimeter long sections of the right and left jugular veins were isolated, emptied of blood, and isolated using bulldog clamps. Clotting of the anticoagulated, autologous whole blood was initiated by combining it with warm (37°) human thromboplastin reagent Thromborel S (Dade Behring) in a 1:4 (vol:vol) ratio, supplementing it to 3.3 × 106 cpm/ml 131I- fibrinogen and 125I-recombinant protein, and re-introducing 0.15 ml of the clotting blood into the isolated segments. This was done for both isolated jugular veins and blood flow was held in stasis for 30 minutes, at which time the clamps were removed, and blood flow restored. Clots were recovered 60 minutes later, following jugular vein opening by incision, and removed, weighed, and γ-counted as described above for murine clots. In some experiments clots were extracted overnight in 5.0 M urea, microcentrifuged, and the supernatant removed prior to re-counting. The proportion of urea-stable protein incorporation was then calculated, adjusted for radioactive decay between the recorded times of the first and second γ-count. All animal experiments were carried out under the terms of an approved Animal Utilization Protocol reviewed, approved, and monitored by the Animal Research Ethics Board of the Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University.
Statistical tests were performed using GraphPad Instat version 4 (GraphPad Software). Multiple comparisons used one-way parametric analysis of variation (ANOVA) with Tukey-Kramer post-tests where data were normally distributed, and nonparametic ANOVA with Dunn's post-tests where they were not.
Expression and characterization of fusion proteins
The five putative HSA fusion proteins were purified from conditioned media induced with methanol for 96 hours, using nickel chelate affinity chromatography, and reacted both with anti-HSA and anti-hexahistidine antibodies, as shown in Figure 2B. The same properties were observed for H6α2AP(13-42)-HSA and previously described α2AP(13-42)-HSA  (Figure 2). Similar results were obtained when an additional two independent P. pastoris Zeocin-resistant cell lines were examined, in addition to the ones shown in Figure 2 (data not shown).
Because the minor, 2-4 kDa difference between the shortest (HSAH6) and longest (H6α2AP(13-42)-HSA) putative expression proteins was not resolvable on the gel system we employed, we sought independent confirmation of the identity and integrity of the expressed protein products by amino acid sequencing. For XL(4-6)-HSA, a single N-terminal sequence was detected by Edman degradation: NQEQVS; DQMMLP; and WQHKID, respectively. For XL1-HSA and XL2-HSA, Edman degradation showed intact hexahistidine amino-termini. For H6α2AP(13-42)-HSA, two sequences were detected: the major sequence arising from the expected hexahistidine tag, and the other a mixture of amino acids suggestive of a similar pattern of partial proteolysis we previously reported for α2AP(13-42)-HSA . In that regard, batches of the latter protein were prepared using 96 hours of methanol induction, as employed for all other proteins in this study, for consistency and for comparative purposes. Edman degradation showed a mixture of termini similar to those previously observed from cultures induced for lesser periods of time . These included termini commencing with Leu23 (LKLGNQ), Leu25 (LGNQEP), and Ser38 (SPPGVC) but no detectable full-length product. Three separate batches of such protein preparations returned similar results (data not shown).
While the amino acid sequencing results showed that positioning of a hexahistidine tag on the N-terminus of α2AP(13-42)-HSA improved the integrity of the resulting purified protein product, the yield was reduced from 40-50 mg/l for AP(13-42)-HSA to 5-6 mg/l for H6α2AP(13-42)-HSA. Yields for the purified XL-HSA proteins varied from 10-12 mg/l (XL1- and XL2-HSA) to 20-35 mg/l ( XL4- and XL5-HSA) to 80-85 mg/l (XL6-HSA).
Characterization of recombinant fusion proteins as fXIIIa substrates for cross-linking to lysine donors
Comparison of fusion proteins as competitors of α2AP-mediated in vitro clot protection
Fusion protein XL5-HSA is retained in experimental thrombi in mice and rabbits
Similar results were obtained using a larger, rabbit experimental model in which the radiolabeled proteins were introduced, with a coagulation activator, into a whole blood segment within the isolated rabbit jugular vein. As shown in Figure 6B, the three proteins were found to become incorporated into the clot with the same relative efficacy as in the murine model; both α2AP and XL5-HSA were incorporated to a greater extent than HSAH6. However, in common with the murine results, the XL5-HSA tracer incorporation was significantly less than that of α2AP.
Fusion protein XL5-HSA is retained in a urea-sensitive manner in experimental thrombi in rabbits
In this study, we sought to increase the stability and activity of HSA fusion proteins containing short N-terminal extensions that are substrates for transglutamination by FXIIIa. Our long-term goal was to produce well-tolerated therapeutic proteins for injection, with the long circulatory half-life of albumin, and the ability to compete the cross-linking of α2AP to fibrin in thrombi. Replacing active α2AP in the clot with a protein incapable of inhibiting plasmin could render pathological clots easier to dissolve. Others have suggested that chemically or mutationally inactivated α2AP could serve this purpose [22, 23], while we have focused on the albumin fusion strategy , due to the ease of large-scale production of recombinant albumin . In this study, we built chimeric albumin fusion proteins modelled on α2AP(13-42)-HSA, seeking to eliminate the partial proteolysis of this prototype, but retain and enhance its ability to be cross-linked by FXIIIa. Our approaches included shortening the natural α2AP-derived cross-linking site, replacing it with either of two FXIIIa highly active substrate sequences identified by phage display, and capping all three novel chimerae with hexahistidine tags.
Substituting the sequence DQMMLPWPAVTL for α2AP(13-42), in fusion protein XL5-HSA, was found to be the most effective approach. This sequence had been reported to be a highly favourable substrate for FXIIIa-mediated transglutamination, when expressed fused to a phage coat protein or to glutathione sulfotransferase (GST) (designated F11 in ). When expressed fused to HSA, it yielded the candidate protein most rapidly and efficiently cross-linked to BPA, and the most effective competitor of α2AP crosslinking, both with small substrates and in competition of α2AP's in vitro antifibrinolytic effect. The molecular context of the fusion partner was relevant, since sequence WQHKIDLPYNGA, identical to sequence F28 in , except for substitution of protease-susceptible R for P at position 8, appeared to be much less active in fusion protein XL6-HSA than in the GST context. Similarly, α2AP(13-23)K24A, although shown to be effectively crosslinked by FXIIIa as α2AP(13-23) or α2AP(13-24) free peptides [33–35], was ineffective at competing α2AP crosslinking to fibrin in fusion protein XL4-HSA. Although our avoidance of Lys or Arg residues in the fusion motifs was successful in avoiding degradation in each case, only XL5-HSA was clearly superior not only to XL4-HSA or XL6-HSA but also to α2AP(13-42)-HSA.
Although the requirements for optimal substrates of FXIIIa have not been precisely defined, they are thought to involve positioning of a reactive glutamine residue within a highly flexible sequence . Fusion proteins XL4-, XL5-, and XL6-HSA all contained a reactive glutamine at position 2, analogous to Q14, the most reactive glutamine in the native α2AP sequence. Q14 is more effectively cross-linked by FXIIIa in the major form of α2AP that circulates in plasma, Asn-α2AP, than in the minor precursor form, Met-α2AP, which retains residues 1-12 . Our finding that positioning a hexahistidine tag N-terminal to the FXIIIa substrate motif reduced its activity in fusion proteins XL1- and XL2-HSA was consistent both with this natural example and with the general concept of flexibility of the reactive glutamine.
Previously, we found that α2AP(13-42)-HSA was no more likely to be present in vivo in the rabbit jugular vein model of thrombosis than recombinant HSA . In contrast, XL5-HSA was retained in thrombi in vivo to a significantly greater extent than recombinant HSA in both rabbit and murine models. Its degree of retention was less than that of human α2AP in both cases, suggesting that there is still room for improvement in defining an optimal sequence to render HSA efficiently cross-linked by factor XIIIa. Nevertheless, this is the first demonstration of targeting of an inactive carrier protein to in vivo clots by an attached transamidation substrate motif, although, as described below, others have shown in vivo clot association of transamidation substrate motif peptides  and peptide-contrast agent conjugates [33, 34]
The insolubility of cross-linked fibrin in 5.0 M urea is a property that has been known for many years, and indeed is used clinically to diagnose FXIII deficiency . Using this property, we showed that in vivo clot-associated XL5-HSA is urea-insoluble, like the majority of bound fibrin or α2AP, but unlike the majority of bound HSA. Although much indirect or in vitro evidence supports the importance of α2AP cross-linking to fibrin with respect to clot resistance to fibrinolysis [22, 23, 39, 40], this is to our knowledge the first demonstration of cross-linking of either α2AP protein or an engineered polypeptide into in vivo thrombi. Other groups have used peptides in this regard, but predominantly in an analytical or imaging mode distinct from long-term goal of reducing thrombus size using cross-linkable proteins. Robinson et al. showed that biotinylated α2AP (13-24) peptide became cross-linked to human thrombi embolized into the lungs of ferrets and mice when infused in vivo . Jaffer et al. employed an α2AP (13-24) peptide linked to a near infrared fluorochrome to image murine thrombi formed following ferric chloride treatment of the femoral vessels , while Miserus et al., used a similar α2AP (13-23) peptide conjugated to a gadolinium-containing contrast agent to visualize murine carotid artery ferric chloride-induced thrombi . While these peptides and peptide-chemical conjugates show great promise for future improved detection of thrombi and stratification of patients, peptides are typically cleared from the circulation with extremely rapid pharmacokinetics. That fusion protein XL5-HSA was found to localize in in vivo thrombi to a greater extent than unmodified recombinant HSA suggests not only its superiority over our previously described α2AP (13-42)-HSA chimera, but also its potential utility in being incorporated as a "Trojan horse" into thrombi, and making them more susceptible to natural or pharmacological thrombolysis.
Recombinant HSA with a DQMMLPWPAVTLG4Y N-terminal extension (XL5-HSA) was more active as a substrate for FXIIIa-mediated cross-linking to either artificial or natural transglutamination partners than other candidate motifs of identical or longer length, with or without an N-terminal His tag. XL5-HSA, unlike α2AP(13-42)-HSA or H6α2AP(13-42)-HSA, was not subject to detectable proteolysis by P. pastoris. Of the proteins tested, XL5-HSA was the most effective competitor of α2AP-mediated resistance of fibrin clots to lysis. In contrast to previous results with α2AP(13-42)-HSA, radiolabeled tracer XL5-HSA was found to a greater extent in experimentally-induced intravascular clots in both murine and rabbit in vivo venous thrombosis models; importantly, the majority of clot-associated XL5-HSA and plasma-derived α2AP, but not recombinant HSA, was shown to be insoluble to 5.0 M urea, suggesting covalent cross-linking. Our results suggest that fusion protein XL5-HSA has been sufficiently optimized over prototype α2AP(13-42)-HSA to warrant in vivo testing as a potential protein drug rendering thrombi more susceptible to natural or pharmacological clot lysis.
The authors thank Sharon Gataiance and Varsha Bhakta for expert technical assistance, and are grateful to Dr. Edward Przydial, University of British Columbia and Canadian Blood Services, for the generous gift of tPA. This study was made possible by a Grant-In-Aid from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario (award number T6588) to WPS.
- Sheffield WP, McCurdy TR, Bhakta V: Fusion to albumin as a means to slow the clearance of small therapeutic proteins using the Pichia pastoris expression system: a case study. Methods Mol Biol. 2005, 308: 145-154.Google Scholar
- Kratz F: Albumin as a drug carrier: design of prodrugs, drug conjugates and nanoparticles. J Control Release. 2008, 132 (3): 171-183. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2008.05.010.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Peters T: Serum albumin. Adv Protein Chem. 1985, 37: 161-245.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hatton MW, Richardson M, Winocour PD: On glucose transport and non-enzymic glycation of proteins in vivo. J Theor Biol. 1993, 161 (4): 481-490. 10.1006/jtbi.1993.1068.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chaudhury C, Mehnaz S, Robinson JM, Hayton WL, Pearl DK, Roopenian DC, Anderson CL: The major histocompatibility complex-related Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) binds albumin and prolongs its lifespan. J Exp Med. 2003, 197 (3): 315-322. 10.1084/jem.20021829.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim J, Bronson CL, Hayton WL, Radmacher MD, Roopenian DC, Robinson JM, Anderson CL: Albumin turnover: FcRn-mediated recycling saves as much albumin from degradation as the liver produces. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006, 290 (2): G352-360. 10.1152/ajpgi.00286.2005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Andersen JT, Daba MB, Sandlie I: FcRn binding properties of an abnormal truncated analbuminemic albumin variant. Clin Biochem. 2010, 43 (4-5): 367-372. 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.12.001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kobayashi K, Nakamura N, Sumi A, Ohmura T, Yokoyama K: The development of recombinant human serum albumin. Ther Apher. 1998, 2 (4): 257-262. 10.1111/j.1744-9987.1998.tb00118.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Subramanian GM, Fiscella M, Lamouse-Smith A, Zeuzem S, McHutchison JG: Albinterferon alpha-2b: a genetic fusion protein for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Nat Biotechnol. 2007, 25 (12): 1411-1419. 10.1038/nbt1364.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Melder RJ, Osborn BL, Riccobene T, Kanakaraj P, Wei P, Chen G, Stolow D, Halpern WG, Migone TS, Wang Q, et al: Pharmacokinetics and in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor response of an interleukin-2-human serum albumin fusion protein in mice. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2005, 54 (6): 535-547. 10.1007/s00262-004-0624-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang YJ, Lundy PM, Lazaris A, Huang Y, Baldassarre H, Wang B, Turcotte C, Cote M, Bellemare A, Bilodeau AS, et al: Substantially improved pharmacokinetics of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase by fusion to human serum albumin. BMC Biotechnol. 2008, 8: 50-10.1186/1472-6750-8-50.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Weimer T, Wormsbacher W, Kronthaler U, Lang W, Liebing U, Schulte S: Prolonged in-vivo half-life of factor VIIa by fusion to albumin. Thromb Haemost. 2008, 99 (4): 659-667.Google Scholar
- Metzner HJ, Weimer T, Kronthaler U, Lang W, Schulte S: Genetic fusion to albumin improves the pharmacokinetic properties of factor IX. Thromb Haemost. 2009, 102 (4): 634-644.Google Scholar
- Sheffield WP, Mamdani A, Hortelano G, Gataiance S, Eltringham-Smith L, Begbie ME, Leyva RA, Liaw PS, Ofosu FA: Effects of genetic fusion of factor IX to albumin on in vivo clearance in mice and rabbits. Br J Haematol. 2004, 126 (4): 565-573. 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2004.05106.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Syed S, Schuyler PD, Kulczycky M, Sheffield WP: Potent antithrombin activity and delayed clearance from the circulation characterize recombinant hirudin genetically fused to albumin. Blood. 1997, 89 (9): 3243-3252.Google Scholar
- Sheffield WP, Eltringham-Smith LJ, Gataiance S, Bhakta V: A long-lasting, plasmin-activatable thrombin inhibitor aids clot lysis in vitro and does not promote bleeding in vivo. Thromb Haemost. 2009, 101 (5): 867-877.Google Scholar
- Marques JA, George JK, Smith IJ, Bhakta V, Sheffield WP: A barbourin-albumin fusion protein that is slowly cleared in vivo retains the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. Thromb Haemost. 2001, 86 (3): 902-908.Google Scholar
- Sheffield WP, Wilson B, Eltringham-Smith LJ, Gataiance S, Bhakta V: Recombinant albumins containing additional peptide sequences smaller than barbourin retain the ability of barbourin-albumin to inhibit platelet aggregation. Thromb Haemost. 2005, 93 (5): 914-921.Google Scholar
- Sheffield WP, Eltringham-Smith LJ, Gataiance S, Bhakta V: Addition of a sequence from alpha2-antiplasmin transforms human serum albumin into a blood clot component that speeds clot lysis. BMC Biotechnol. 2009, 9: 15-10.1186/1472-6750-9-15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aoki N: The past, present and future of plasmin inhibitor. Thromb Res. 2005, 116 (6): 455-464. 10.1016/j.thromres.2004.12.019.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sakata Y, Aoki N: Significance of cross-linking of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor to fibrin in inhibition of fibrinolysis and in hemostasis. J Clin Invest. 1982, 69 (3): 536-542. 10.1172/JCI110479.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee KN, Lee SC, Jackson KW, Tae WC, Schwartzott DG, McKee PA: Effect of phenylglyoxal-modified alpha2-antiplasmin on urokinase-induced fibrinolysis. Thromb Haemost. 1998, 80 (4): 637-644.Google Scholar
- Lee KN, Tae WC, Jackson KW, Kwon SH, McKee PA: Characterization of wild-type and mutant alpha2-antiplasmins: fibrinolysis enhancement by reactive site mutant. Blood. 1999, 94 (1): 164-171.Google Scholar
- Chuang VT, Otagiri M: Recombinant human serum albumin. Drugs Today (Barc). 2007, 43 (8): 547-561. 10.1358/dot.2007.43.8.1067343.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ichinose A, Tamaki T, Aoki N: Factor XIII-mediated cross-linking of NH2-terminal peptide of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor to fibrin. FEBS Lett. 1983, 153 (2): 369-371. 10.1016/0014-5793(83)80645-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sugimura Y, Hosono M, Wada F, Yoshimura T, Maki M, Hitomi K: Screening for the preferred substrate sequence of transglutaminase using a phage-displayed peptide library: identification of peptide substrates for TGASE 2 and Factor XIIIA. J Biol Chem. 2006, 281 (26): 17699-17706. 10.1074/jbc.M513538200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jobse BN, Sutherland JS, Vaz D, Bhakta V, Sheffield WP: Molecular cloning and functional expression of rabbit alpha2-antiplasmin. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2006, 17 (4): 283-291. 10.1097/01.mbc.0000224848.19754.cc.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sheffield WP, Smith IJ, Syed S, Bhakta V: Prolonged in vivo anticoagulant activity of a hirudin-albumin fusion protein secreted from Pichia pastoris. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2001, 12 (6): 433-443. 10.1097/00001721-200109000-00003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Smith PL, Hsu MY, Ogletree ML, Schumacher WA: Murine model of ferric chloride-induced vena cava thrombosis: evidence for effect of potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor. J Thromb Haemost. 2006, 4 (2): 403-410. 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2006.01703.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Smith PL, Hsu MY, Tamasi JA, Bird E, Schumacher WA: Deficiency in thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) protected mice from ferric chloride-induced vena cava thrombosis. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2007, 23 (1): 41-49. 10.1007/s11239-006-9009-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wessler S: Thrombosis in the presence of vascular stasis. Am J Med. 1962, 33: 648-666. 10.1016/0002-9343(62)90244-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mosesson MW, Siebenlist KR, Hernandez I, Lee KN, Christiansen VJ, McKee PA: Evidence that alpha2-antiplasmin becomes covalently ligated to plasma fibrinogen in the circulation: a new role for plasma factor XIII in fibrinolysis regulation. J Thromb Haemost. 2008, 6 (9): 1565-1570. 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2008.03056.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miserus RJ, Herias MV, Prinzen L, Lobbes MB, Van Suylen RJ, Dirksen A, Hackeng TM, Heemskerk JW, van Engelshoven JM, Daemen MJ, et al: Molecular MRI of early thrombus formation using a bimodal alpha2-antiplasmin-based contrast agent. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009, 2 (8): 987-996. 10.1016/j.jcmg.2009.03.015.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jaffer FA, Tung CH, Wykrzykowska JJ, Ho NH, Houng AK, Reed GL, Weissleder R: Molecular imaging of factor XIIIa activity in thrombosis using a novel, near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent that covalently links to thrombi. Circulation. 2004, 110 (2): 170-176. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000134484.11052.44.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Robinson BR, Houng AK, Reed GL: Catalytic life of activated factor XIII in thrombi. Implications for fibrinolytic resistance and thrombus aging. Circulation. 2000, 102 (10): 1151-1157.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cleary DB, Maurer MC: Characterizing the specificity of activated Factor XIII for glutamine-containing substrate peptides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006, 1764 (7): 1207-1217.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee KN, Jackson KW, Christiansen VJ, Chung KH, McKee PA: A novel plasma proteinase potentiates alpha2-antiplasmin inhibition of fibrin digestion. Blood. 2004, 103 (10): 3783-3788. 10.1182/blood-2003-12-4240.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Karimi M, Bereczky Z, Cohan N, Muszbek L: Factor XIII Deficiency. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2009, 35 (4): 426-438. 10.1055/s-0029-1225765.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fraser SR, Booth NA, Mutch NJ: The antifibrinolytic function of factor XIII is exclusively expressed through alpha-antiplasmin cross-linking. Blood. 2011, 117 (23): 6371-6374. 10.1182/blood-2011-02-333203.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Matsuno H, Kozawa O, Okada K, Ueshima S, Matsuo O, Uematsu T: Plasmin generation plays different roles in the formation and removal of arterial and venous thrombus in mice. Thromb Haemost. 2002, 87 (1): 98-104.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.