- Methodology article
- Open Access
Detection of target DNA using fluorescent cationic polymer and peptide nucleic acid probes on solid support
- Frédéric R Raymond†1,
- Hoang-Anh Ho†2,
- Régis Peytavi1,
- Luc Bissonnette1,
- Maurice Boissinot1,
- François J Picard1,
- Mario Leclerc2Email author and
- Michel G Bergeron1Email author
© Raymond et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2005
- Received: 17 August 2004
- Accepted: 25 April 2005
- Published: 25 April 2005
Nucleic acids detection using microarrays requires labelling of target nucleic acids with fluorophores or other reporter molecules prior to hybridization.
Using surface-bound peptide nucleic acids (PNA) probes and soluble fluorescent cationic polythiophenes, we show a simple and sensitive electrostatic approach to detect and identify unlabelled target nucleic acid on microarray.
This simple methodology opens exciting possibilities for applied genetic analysis for the diagnosis of infections, identification of genetic mutations, and forensic inquiries. This electrostatic strategy could also be used with other nucleic acid detection methods such as electrochemistry, silver staining, metallization, quantum dots, or electrochemical dyes.
- Capture Probe
- Peptide Nucleic Acid
- Nucleic Acid Detection
- Peptide Nucleic Acid Probe
Classical strategies for nucleic acid detection require labelling the analyte or the probes with fluorophores or other reporter molecules [1, 2]. Labelling steps add cost, often complexify the reaction mixture, and are not useful when rapidity of the assay is essential, such as for some molecular diagnostic applications. Fluorescent conjugated polymers have already been shown to allow the sensitive detection of DNA and RNA in liquid phase by complexation of the cationic fluorescent polymer to negatively-charged nucleic acids [3–8]. The use of DNA/RNA-binding fluorescent polymers on microarray could allow unlabelled nucleic acid detection, and thus prevent the need for a nucleic acid labelling step. Using PNA capture probes, we show a simple and sensitive electrostatic approach which enables the direct detection and specific identification of unlabelled target nucleic acid analyte using a standard microarray scanner.
Experiments with commercially available aldehyde-functionalized glass slides, while giving strong signal when fluorophore-labelled target DNA hybridized to DNA probes, gave no signal when detection was conducted using PNA probes (data not shown). We developed aminoalkylsilane slides activated with carbonyldiimidazole and compared them with commercial aldehyde slides. Our chemistry was compatible with detection on PNA capture probes using Cy3-labelled oligonucleotides or using the fluorescent cationic polymer, while aldehyde slides gave no signal. The aminated slides activated by carbodiimidazole were thus chosen to immobilize both DNA and PNA capture probes for all experiments described here.
Capture probes of neutral charge, such as PNA [9–14], have been successfully used in microarray experiments [6, 15]. Since PNA do not have a charged backbone, they could be used to allow the detection of nucleic acids with cationic polymeric biosensors such as polythiophenes. Using PNA as capture probes provide a simple and sensitive electrostatic approach on solid support which enables the direct detection and specific identification of unlabelled target nucleic acid analyte with a standard microarray scanner.
The cationic polymer does not bind to unhybridized neutral PNA capture probes (Figure 1c), but strongly interacts with the negatively-charged backbone of the complementary oligonucleotides bound to PNA probes, allowing transduction of hybridization into a fluorescence signal (Figure 1d). This clearly demonstrates the usefulness of PNA capture probes for the detection of hybridization events with positively-charged fluorescent conjugated polymers on solid support. In a recent study, Gaylord et al. have shown detection in solution of a complementary DNA hybridized to a PNA probe using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a water soluble conjugated polymer and a PNA probe labelled with a reporter chromophore . The present study shows similar results without the need for labelled PNA. Moreover, we demonstrate that this detection can be performed using PNA capture probes tethered onto a solid support. Those results suggest that this electrostatic strategy could also be used with other nucleic acid detection methods such as electrochemistry , silver staining [17, 18], metallization [19, 20], quantum dots [21–23], or electrochemical dyes .
The sensitivity of the detection scheme described here is approximately 2.5 × 10-13 mole of oligonucleotide in a volume of 20 μL. In a recent report, Nilsson and Inganäs  have described the use of a zwitterionic polythiophene derivative able to detect 2 × 10-8 mole of oligonucleotide within a hydrogel matrix. Our approach, based on standard glass slide microarray technologies, is approximately five orders of magnitude more sensitive. Moreover, it is expected that further progress in terms of sensitivity should be obtained by reducing the size of the microarray spots and of the hybridization reaction volume. Also, the detection of larger DNA molecules (e.g. amplicons) should increase sensitivity since the amount of complexed fluorescent cationic polymer is theoretically proportional to the amount of possible electrostatic interactions. The development of scanners specifically fabricated to excite at the wavelength of this fluorescent cationic polymer should also contribute to increase the analytical sensitivity. Indeed, recent optimizations of the fluorometric detection applied to our polymer technology has enabled the detection of only a few hundred molecules of genetic material in 3 mL of aqueous solution . This clearly indicates the great potential of cationic conjugated polymers as highly sensitive fluorescent transducers.
In this study, we presented a simple and specific nucleic acid detection method onto solid support which does not require labelling of the analyte prior to hybridization. This methodology opens new possibilities for genetic analysis applied for the diagnosis of infections, identification of genetic mutations, and forensic inquiries. For instance, this technology would be useful for the identification of pathogens and related antimicrobial resistance genotypes using microarrays. Finally, the electroactivity of the present fluorescent cationic polymer could be exploited for a real-time electrical discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) onto solid support.
All chemical reagents were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St. Louis, MO) and were used without further purification unless otherwise stated. Fluorescent polythiophene used in this study, poly(1H-imidazolium, 1-methyl-3-[2-[(4-methyl-3-thienyl)oxy]ethyl]-, chloride), was prepared following published procedures [3, 4]. Oligodeoxyribonucleotide capture probes, which were 5'-modified by the addition of two nine carbon spacers and an amino-linker, were synthesized by Biosearch Technologies (Novato, CA). PNA capture probes having a N-terminal amine and two O linkers were synthesized by Applied Biosystems (Foster City, CA). The amino-linker modification allowed covalent attachment of probes onto a functionalized glass surface. The capture DNA or PNA probe of 15-mer (5'-CCGCTCGCCAGCTCC-3') targeted a polymorphic region of the blaSHV-1 gene associated with β-lactam antibiotic resistance. Target oligonucleotides (i) fully complementary to the capture DNA or PNA probe (5'-GGAGCTGGCGAGCGG-3'), (ii) having two mismatched bases (5'-GGCGCTGACGAGCGG-3'), (iii) having a central single mismatch (5'-GGAGCTGACGAGCGG-3'), (iv) having a single mismatch at one extremity (5'-GGCGCTGGCGAGCGG-3'), and (v) non complementary (5'-CGCTCTGCTTTGTTATTCGG-3') were synthesized by Biosearch Technologies.
Preparation of glass slide
The aldehyde-functionalized commercial glass slides were purchased from CEL Associates (Pearland, TX). The home made aminoalkylsilane-functionalized glass slides were prepared as follows. All chemical reactions were carried out in polypropylene jars. Surfaces used were 25 mm × 75 mm microscope glass slides (VWR International, West Chester, PA). After sonication (1 hour) in deionized water, the slides were sonicated in 40 mL of 10% sodium hydroxide for 1 hr, washed several times with deionized water, and dried under a stream of nitrogen. The slides were then sonicated in an aminopropyltrimethoxysilane solution (2 mL water, 38 mL methanol and 2 mL aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) for 1 hr, washed with methanol, dried and baked at 110°C for 15 min. The amine modified slides were activated by sonication overnight in 40 mL of 1.4-dioxane containing 0.32 g (2 mmoles) of carbonyldiimidazole as coupling agent, washed with dioxane and diethyl ether, and dried under a stream of nitrogen.
The probes were diluted two-fold by the addition of Array-it Microspotting Solution Plus (TeleChem International, Sunnyvale, CA), to a final concentration of 5 μM. Capture probes were spotted in triplicate, using a SDDC-2 arrayer (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) with SMP3 pins (TeleChem International). Upon spotting, each spot had a volume of 0.6 nL, a diameter between 140 and 150 μm, and contained approximately 1.8 × 109 amino-modified probes. After spotting, slides were dried overnight, washed by immersion in boiling 0.1% Igepal CA-630 (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) for 5 min, rinsed in ultra-pure water for 2 min, and dried by centrifugation for 5 min under vacuum (SpeedVac plus; Thermo Savant, Milford, MA). Slides were stored at room-temperature in a dry and oxygen-free environment.
DNA microarray hybridization, polymeric detection and data acquisition
Prehybridization and hybridization were performed in 15 × 13 mm Hybri-well self-sticking hybridization chambers (Sigma-Aldrich). Microarrays were first prehybridized for 15 min at room temperature with 20 μL of 1X hybridization solution (6X SSPE [Omnipur, EM Science, Gilbstown, NJ], 0.03% polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP], and 30% formamide). Subsequently, the prehybridization buffer was blown out of the chambers and replaced with the same buffer containing the target oligonucleotide (complementary, central mismatch or two mismatches) at a final concentration of 2.5 μM, except for sensitivity experiments for which concentrations ranged from 0.25 nM to 2.5 μM. Hybridization was carried out at 22°C for 15 min. After hybridization, the liquid was expelled from the chambers and replaced by an aqueous solution of cationic polymer (7.3 × 10-4 M based on monomeric units). After a 15 min incubation period, the slides were washed with deionized water containing 0.1 % Igepal CA-630. Microarrays were dried by centrifugation at 1350 × g for 3 min. Slides were scanned using the Cy3 configuration (excitation wavelength at 530 nm) of ScanArray 4000XL (Packard Bioscience Biochip Technologies, Billerica, MA) and the fluorescent signals were analyzed using QuantArray software (Packard Bioscience Biochip Technologies).
This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Infectio Diagnostic Inc. (Sainte-Foy, Québec, Canada), Génome Québec and Genome Canada, and the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Research and Technology Initiative.
- Pirrung MC: How to make a DNA chip. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2002, 41: 1276-1289.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Epstein JR, Biran I, Walt DR: Fluorescence-based nucleic acid detection and microarrays. Anal Chim Acta. 2002, 469: 3-36.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Doré K, Dubus S, Ho HA, Lévesque I, Brunette M, Corbeil G, Boissinot M, Boivin G, Bergeron MG, Boudreau D, et al: Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level. J Am Chem Soc. 2004, 126: 4240-4244.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ho HA, Boissinot M, Bergeron MG, Corbeil G, Doré K, Boudreau D, Leclerc M: Colorimetric and fluorometric detection of nucleic acids using cationic polythiophene derivatives. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2002, 41: 1548-1551.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ho HA, Leclerc M: New colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensor based on a cationic polythiophene derivative for iodide-specific detection. J Am Chem Soc. 2003, 125: 4412-4413.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gaylord BS, Heeger AJ, Bazan GC: DNA detection using water-soluble conjugated polymers and peptide nucleic acid probes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002, 99: 10954-10957.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gaylord BS, Heeger AJ, Bazan GC: DNA hybridization detection with water-soluble conjugated polymers and chromophore-labeled single-stranded DNA. J Am Chem Soc. 2003, 125: 896-900.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nilsson KP, Inganas O: Chip and solution detection of DNA hybridization using a luminescent zwitterionic polythiophene derivative. Nat Mater. 2003, 2: 419-424.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Livache T, Roget A, Dejean E, Barthet C, Bidan G, Teoule R: Preparation of a DNA matrix via an electrochemically directed copolymerization of polypyrrole and oligonucleotide bearing a pyrrole group. Nucl Acids Res. 1994, 22: 2915-2921.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nielsen PE: Applications of peptide nucleic acids. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 1999, 10: 71-75.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nielsen PE, Egholm M: An introduction to peptide nucleic acid. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 1999, 1: 89-104.Google Scholar
- Ratilainen T, Holmen A, Tuite E, Haaima G, Christensen L, Nielsen PE, Norden B: Hybridization of peptide nucleic acid. Biochemistry. 1998, 37: 12331-12342.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stender H, Fiandaca M, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ, Coull J: PNA for rapid microbiology. J Microbiol Methods. 2002, 48: 1-17.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang J: PNA biosensors for nucleic acid detection. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 1999, 1: 117-122.Google Scholar
- Brandt O, Feldner J, Stephan A, Schroder M, Schnolzer M, Arlinghaus HF, Hoheisel JD, Jacob A: PNA microarrays for hybridisation of unlabelled DNA samples. Nucl Acids Res. 2003, 31: e119-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu A, Anzai J: Use of polymeric indicator for electrochemical DNA sensors: poly(4-vinylpyridine) derivative bearing [Os(5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)2Cl]2+. Anal Chem. 2004, 76: 2975-2980.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Braun E, Eichen Y, Sivan U, Ben-Yoseph G: DNA-templated assembly and electrode attachment of a conducting silver wire. Nature. 1998, 391: 775-778.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brust M, Kiely CJ: Some recent advances in nanostructure preparation from gold and silver particles: a short topical review. Colloids Surfaces. 2002, 202: 175-186.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Warner MG, Hutchison JE: Linear assemblies of nanoparticles electrostatically organized on DNA scaffolds. Nat Mat. 2003, 2: 272-277.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Storhoff JJ, Mirkin CA: Programmed materials synthesis with DNA. Chem Rev. 1999, 99: 1849-1862.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alivisatos P: Colloidal quantum dots. From scaling laws to biological applications. Pure Appl Chem. 2000, 72: 3-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chan WC, Nie S: Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection. Science. 1998, 281: 2016-2018.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Penner RM: Hybrid electrochemical/chemical synthesis of quantum dots. Acc Chem Res. 2000, 33: 78-86.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kricka LJ: Stains, labels and detection strategies for nucleic acids assays. Ann Clin Biochem. 2002, 39: 114-129.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.