- Research article
- Open Access
Development of a strategy to functionalize a dextrin-based hydrogel for animal cell cultures using a starch-binding module fused to RGD sequence
© Moreira et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
- Received: 03 June 2008
- Accepted: 14 October 2008
- Published: 14 October 2008
Several approaches can be used to functionalize biomaterials, such as hydrogels, for biomedical applications. One of the molecules often used to improve cells adhesion is the peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). The RGD sequence, present in several proteins from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM), is a ligand for integrin-mediated cell adhesion; this sequence was recognized as a major functional group responsible for cellular adhesion. In this work a bi-functional recombinant protein, containing a starch binding module (SBM) and RGD sequence was used to functionalize a dextrin-based hydrogel. The SBM, which belongs to an α-amylase from Bacillus sp. TS-23, has starch (and dextrin, depolymerized starch) affinity, acting as a binding molecule to adsorb the RGD sequence to the hydrogel surface.
The recombinant proteins SBM and RGD-SBM were cloned, expressed, purified and tested in in vitro assays. The evaluation of cell attachment, spreading and proliferation on the dextrin-based hydrogel surface activated with recombinant proteins were performed using mouse embryo fibroblasts 3T3. A polystyrene cell culture plate was used as control. The results showed that the RGD-SBM recombinant protein improved, by more than 30%, the adhesion of fibroblasts to dextrin-based hydrogel. In fact, cell spreading on the hydrogel surface was observed only in the presence of the RGD-SBM.
The fusion protein RGD-SBM provides an efficient way to functionalize the dextrin-based hydrogel. Many proteins in nature that hold a RGD sequence are not cell adhesive, probably due to the conformation/accessibility of the peptide. We therefore emphasise the successful expression of a bi-functional protein with potential for different applications.
- Recombinant Protein
- Unbind Protein
- Hydrogel Surface
- Fibroblast Adhesion
- Major Functional Group
Hydrogels are a class of water-swollen polymeric materials, capable of maintaining a distinct three-dimensional structure [1, 2], which can be used as scaffolds in tissue engineering, as wound dressing, and drug delivery systems, among other applications . Several approaches have been developed to produce hydrogels from different synthetic and natural polymers . Among them, the starch-based hydrogels have appealing characteristics in the perspective of biomedical application. They are biocompatible, have convenient degradation kinetics and release profiles and also present appropriate mechanical properties [5–7]. Despite its wide and successful application, the resistance of the hydrogel surfaces to cell adhesion and differentiation might represent a considerable limitation. In this context, the hydrogel functionalization, through the incorporation of adhesive molecules, emerges as a promising approach to overcome these limitations.
Several molecules, namely proteins of the ECM (extra-cellular matrix), poly-L-lysine (PLL) and a natural adhesive protein extracted from mussel (MAP)  have been successfully applied in promoting cell adhesion and proliferation [8–12]. In addition, the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif – found in ECM proteins and in the blood, such as fibronectin, vitronectin, osteopontin, collagens, thrombospondin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor – was described as the major functional group responsible for cellular adhesion [8, 13, 14]. Various strategies of surface functionalization, which include the coupling or grafting of the RGD peptide, have been already reported. Most of these involves complex chemical reactions, to activate the chemical groups in the polymer or in the RGD containing sequence, to allow for the covalent binding [15–17]. In this study, a new approach of RGD-activation of dextrin-hydrogel (a depolymerized starch) is proposed. It has been reported that RGD bioactivity can be conserved in fusion proteins [2, 18]. Likewise, a recombinant protein containing a starch-binding module (SBM) and a RGD sequence was used in this work. Several enzymes that metabolize carbohydrates have a modular structure with two independent domains, a catalytic domain and a substrate-binding domain, generically designated as carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). A CBM is defined as a contiguous amino acid sequence within a carbohydrate-active enzyme with a discreet fold having carbohydrate-binding activity. The CBM used in this work, is a starch-binding module (SBM), belonging to a α-amylase from Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 , which specifically binds to starch .
The present work shows the successful functionalization of a dextrin-based hydrogel, using a fusion protein containing a C-terminal SBM and a N-terminal RGD sequence. Viability and microscopic evaluation of the protein-activated hydrogels, revealed an effective improvement of cellular adhesion and spreading.
Reagents and strains
All reagents used were laboratory grade reagents from Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, USA, unless stated otherwise.
The bacterial hosts used for cloning and expression of the fusion proteins were Escherichia coli strain XL1 Blue [recA1 endA1 gyrA96 thi-1 hsdR17 supE44 relA1 lac [F proAB lacIqZΔM15 Tn10 (Tetr)] (Stratagene) and strain BL21 (DE3) [F- ompT hsdSB (r-B mB-) gal dem Δ(srl-recA) 306::Tn10(DE3)](Novagen), respectively. The pET 29a(+) (Novagen) was used as expression vector. The restriction enzymes and T4 DNA ligase were purchased from Roche Diagnostics GmbH (Penzberg, Germany). The Vent DNA polymerase used was from New England Biolabs.
In vitro assays were performed using mouse embryo fibroblasts 3T3 (ATCC CCL-164), grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's media (DMEM) supplemented with 10% newborn calf serum (Invitrogen) and penicillin/streptomycin (1 μg/mL) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, USA), at 37°C, in a fully modified air containing 5% CO2.
The DNA coding sequence of the starch-binding module from Bacillus sp. Strain TS-23 was synthesized (Epoch Biolabs, Missouri City, USA). This sequence was used as template to clone SBM and RGD-SBM codifying sequences by PCR. In the case of RGD-SBM peptide, 10 amino acids were cloned in the N-terminal between SBM and RGD, to act as a linker and allow some mobility of the RGD. Briefly, SBM and RGD-SBM sequences were cloned using the forward primers 5'-GGGAATTCCATATGACGTCAAACGTCACATTTAC-3' and 5'-GGGAATTCCATATG AGAGGTGATGGAGGCTCCGTTTCGATTTGG-3', respectively, and the reverse primer 5'-CCGCTCGAGTGGCACATTCCAGCTCGC-3', the underline sequences are the restriction sites for the Nde I and Xho I, and the bold sequence codify the RGD. The PCR reactions were performed using the Vent DNA polymerase and the PCR conditions were: denaturation at 95°C, annealing at 53°C and extension at 72°C, all steps for 45 seconds (this cycle was repeated 30 times).
Both DNA coding sequences were cloned in pET29a(+) expression system, which allows the fusion of recombinant proteins with a hexa-histidine tag on the C-terminal, for purification. The nucleotide sequences of cloned genes were verified by sequencing. The E. coli XL1 Blue was used as cloning strain and expression was carried out in E. coli BL21 (DE3).
Production and purification of recombinant proteins
For the production of the recombinant proteins, the E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells transformed with the expression vectors, pET29a(+)-SBM and pET21a-RGD-SBD were grown at 37°C, in LB medium supplemented with Kanamycin (50 μg/ml). Cultures were induced with IsoPropyl β-D-1-ThioGalactopyranoside (IPTG, Invitrogen) at 1 mM. Five hours after induction, the cells were separated from the culture medium by centrifugation (13 000 g, 10 min) and resuspended in buffer A (20 mM Tris, 20 mM NaCl, 5 mM CaCl2, pH 7.4 and PMSF 0.1 mM) and then lysed by sonication. The soluble and insoluble fractions were separated by centrifugation (15 000 g, 4°C, 30 min). The purification was made by affinity chromatography, using a HisTrapTM HP (GE health care). For that, imidazole was added to the cell lysated (40 mM final concentration) and the pH was adjusted to 7.4 before its application on the nickel column. After purification, proteins were dialyzed against the buffer A, sterilized by filtration (0.22 μm) and stored at -20°C, prior to use.
SBM adsorptions assays
To evaluate the SBM starch affinity and specificity, an adsorption assay using starch (positive control) and cellulose (negative control). The protein of the soluble fraction (0.5 mL) obtained from the cells lyses (0.5 mg/mL) was mixed with 50 mg of starch or cellulose, for 1 h, at 4°C. Then, the mixture was centrifuged (13 000 rpm, 10 min, 4°C) and the total protein in supernatant was quantified by the Bradford assay (BioRad), using BSA as standards, and analysed by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant SBM was eluted from starch with 2% β-cyclodextrin solution (0.5 mL, 4°C, 1 h).
Effect of the recombinant proteins on the adhesion and spreading of fibroblasts on the tissue culture polystyrene plate (TCPP)
The cell viability was determined by the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) (MTS, Promega) assay, a colorimetric assay that gives a measure of the mitochondrial metabolic activity. The fusion proteins were added to the 96-well TCPP (0.05 μg of protein per well) to allow adsorption (4°C, overnight). The unbound protein was washed out with phosphate buffer saline PBS; then 200 μL of fibroblast suspension was plated in each well, yielding a final density of 5 × 103 cells. After 1 h the wells were washed with PBS and the culture medium refreshed. The MTS assay and microscope observations of the attachment and spreading of fibroblasts were carried out at 1, 5, 24 and 48 h after the addition of the cells.
Effect of the recombinant proteins on the adhesion and spreading of fibroblasts on the dextrin-based hydrogel
In a second test, the recombinant proteins were added to the hydrogel. For this propose hydrogels were prepared in a 96-well polypropylene plate (autoclavable), as described by Carvalho et al. . Briefly, 30 μL of the dextrin-based solution (300 mg/mL in PBS) was placed on the bottom of each well and the initiators were added to allow the polymerization. After sterilization (20 min, at 121°C and 1 atm) the hydrogel was washed with PBS and then the recombinant proteins were added (0.25 μg of protein per well). Afterwards, plates were incubated overnight at 4°C. Unbound protein was removed and analyzed by SDS – PAGE and the hydrogel was washed out with PBS before cells seeding. A fibroblasts suspension was plated into each well, to yield a final density of 2 × 104 cells. The plates were incubated and after 4 h, the wells were washed with PBS and the medium refreshed. The MTS assays were carried out on the non-adherent cells. Microscope observations of the attachment and spreading of 3T3 fibroblasts was carried out at 4, 24 and 48 h after the addition of the cells and then trypsinized from the hydrogel before MTS analysis. The results expressed as cell proliferation inhibition index (CPII) were calculated as CPII = 100 - (DO490 nm of test culture/DO490 nm of control culture) × 100.
Expression and purification of recombinant proteins
The SBM functionality was analysed through a starch adsorption assay, confirming that the binding module is functional. The SBM specificity was evaluated using starch (positive control) and cellulose (negative control). The SBM adsorbed only to starch and it could be eluted using soluble β-cyclodextrin (Figure 1).
Attachment of fibroblasts to the recombinant protein-coated TCPP
Attachment of fibroblasts on dextrin-based hydrogel surface
The effect of the RGD-SBM peptide on proliferation was also evaluated. The MTS results suggested that the cell proliferation was only moderate irrespective of the hydrogel activation, as can be seen by the evolution of the non-normalized absorbance values (figure 5). These results are in good agreement with previous reports [26, 29] of a moderate cell growth on similar non-activated hydrogels. It could be expected that the presence of RGD-SBM peptide would increase the proliferation rate. However, despite the relevant effect on cell morphology, the presence of the RGD-SBM does not lead to a significant increase in the rate of proliferation. It is well known that the fibroblast migration and proliferation on a biomaterial surface, coated with adhesive peptides, is dependent on the peptides density [10, 12, 24]. Neff at al.  found that fibroblast migration and proliferation decreased with the increasing of the adhesion peptide concentration. These authors found that for a maximum fibroblast proliferation, the adhesive peptide density should be intermediate. A similar effect was observed for other cells lines, namely, murine melanoma cells  and smooth muscle cells . In this work, the effect of the RGD-SBM concentration on both cells migration and proliferation was not evaluated. Likewise, it is possible that the peptide concentration should be under or over the optimum, which would explain the proliferation rate observed. Thus, future work should address the optimization of the peptide concentration in order to maximize cell proliferation on the dextrin-based hydrogel .
In this work, a new approach was applied to functionalize a dextrin-based hydrogel: a recombinant protein, with a C-terminal starch-binding module and a N-terminal RGD sequence was cloned, expressed and successfully used to improve fibroblast adhesion and spreading on the hydrogel surface. The recombinant DNA techniques allow the fusion of different peptides in order to obtain chimeric proteins with specific functionality. However, the fusion of two peptides individually functional does not necessarily lead to a bi-functional fusion protein, according to our own experience. The loss of peptide functionally in the recombinant fusion protein may be a result of conformational changes that interfere with substrate accessibility or cell interaction. This is not the case with the protein produced in this work. The RGD-SBM recombinant protein improved by more than 30% the adhesion and spreading of fibroblast on the starch-based hydrogel.
The major advantages of the approach developed in this work may be summarized as follows: 1) the RGD sequence is expressed in E. coli fused to the SBM, not chemically synthesized; normally, the RGD sequence obtained chemically is attached to a linker and/or a reactive amino acids, and thus are expensive products. 2) The fusion protein strongly and specifically binds dextrin or starch-based materials, without the need for complex chemistry, toxic chemicals, etc. The specific affinity of the SBM may be used also for the purification of the protein. 3) This approach, here demonstrated with the RGD case study, may be adopted to a wide range of peptides, particularly to short peptides like SBM, which may easily be produced using this expression system. 4) Several applications may be envisaged for this system: the production of biomimetic materials for the development of cell culture medium, the functionalization of materials for cell immobilization or even biomedical applications (addressing multifunctional nanoparticles made of starch to neoplastic tissue by RGD active targeting, for instance). Preliminary results show that the foreign body reaction to hydrogel implants is not affected by the presence of RGD-SBM.
The author SM is the recipient of a fellowship from Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal) and the author FA is the recipient of a fellowship from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES, Brazil). The authors wish to acknowledge the project FUNCARB POCTI/BIO/45356/2002 for the financial support.
- Kopecek J: Hydrogel Biomaterials: A Smart Future?. Biomaterial. 2007, 28: 5185-5192. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.07.044.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang TW, Wu HC, Huang YC, Sun JS, Lin FH: The Effect of Self-Designed Bifunctional RGD-Containing Fusion Protein on the Behavior of Human Keratinocytes and Dermal Fibroblasts. Inc J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater. 2006, 79B: 379-387. 10.1002/jbm.b.30552.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carvalho JM, Gil AM, Gama FM: Production and characterization of a new dextrin based hydrogel. Eur Polym J. 2007, 43: 3050-3059. 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2007.02.046.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Peppas MBNA, Huang Y, Torres-Lugo M, Ward JH, Zhang J: Physicochemical foundations and structural design oh hydrogels. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2000, 2: 9-29. 10.1146/annurev.bioeng.2.1.9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wong WH, Mooney DJ: Synthesis and properties of biodegradable polymers used as synthetic matrices for tissue engineering in: synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffolds. Birkhau ser: Boston. 1997, 51: 51-82.Google Scholar
- Marques AP, Reis RL, Hunt JA: The biocompatibility of novel starch-based polymers and composites: in vitro studies. Biomaterials. 2002, 23: 1471-1478. 10.1016/S0142-9612(01)00272-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang L-M, Yang Chuan, Yan Li: Perspectives on: strategies to fabricate starch-based hydrogels with potential biomedical applications. Journal of Bioctive and Compatible Polymers. 2005, 20: 297-314. 10.1177/0883911505053382.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hwang DS, Sim SB, Cha HJ: Cell adhesion biomaterial based on mussel adhesive protein fused with RGD peptide. Biomaterials. 2007, 28: 4034-4046.Google Scholar
- Dai WS, Saltzman WM: Fibroblast aggregation by suspension with conjugates of poly(ethylene glycol) and RGD. Biotech Bioeng. 1996, 50: 349-356. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(19960520)50:4<349::AID-BIT1>3.0.CO;2-L.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tan J, Gemeinhart RA, Ma M, Saltzman WM: Improved cell adhesion and proliferation on synthetic phosphonic acid-containing hydrogels. Biomaterial. 2005, 26: 3663-3671. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.09.053.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schraa AJ, Kok RJ, Berendsen AD, Moorlag HE, Bos EJ, Meijer DKF, Leij LFMH, Molema G: Endothelial cells internalize and degrade RGD-modified proteins developed for tumour vasculature targeting. J Controlled Release. 2002, 83: 241-251. 10.1016/S0168-3659(02)00206-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mann BK, West JL: Cell adhesion peptides alter smooth muscle cell adhesion, proliferation, migration, and matrix protein synthesis on modified surfaces and in polymer scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002, 60: 86-93. 10.1002/jbm.10042.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ruoslahti E: The RGD story: a personal account. Matrix Biol. 2003, 22: 459-465. 10.1016/S0945-053X(03)00083-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ruoslahti E, Pierschbacher : New perspectives in cell adhesion: RGD and integrins. Science. 1987, 238: 491-497. 10.1126/science.2821619.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Li J, Fu MDQ, Tan H, Xie X, Zhong Y: A novel strategy to graft RGD peptide on biomaterials surfaces for endothelization of small-diamater vascular grafts and tissue engineering blood vessel. J Mater Sci: Mater Med. 2008Google Scholar
- Hersel U, Dahmen C, Kessler H: RGD modified polymers: biomaterials for stimulated cell adhesion and beyond. Biomaterials. 2003, 24: 4385-4415. 10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00343-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Massias SP, Stark J: Immobilized RGD peptides on surface-grafted dextran promote biospecific cell attachment. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2001, 56: 390-399. 10.1002/1097-4636(20010905)56:3<390::AID-JBM1108>3.0.CO;2-L.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wierzba A, Reichl U, Turner RFB, Antony R, Warren J, Kilburn DG: Adhesion of mammalian cells to a recombinant attachment factor, CBD/RGD, analyzed by image analysis. Biotech Bioeng. 1995, 46: 185-193. 10.1002/bit.260460302.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin LL, Tsau MR, Chu WS: General characteristics of thermostable amylopullulanases and amylases from the alkalophilic Bacillus sp. TS-23. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1994, 42: 51-56. 10.1007/BF00170224.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin L, Hsu WH, Chu WS: A gene encoding for an alpha-amylase from thermophilic Bacillus sp strain TS-23 and its expression in Escherichia coli. J Appl Microbiology. 1997, 82: 325-334. 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1997.00364.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin LL, Lo HF, Chi MC, Ku KL: Functional expression of the raw starch-binding domain of Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 α-amylase in recombinant Escherichia coli. Starch/Starke. 2003, 55: 197-202. 10.1002/star.200390038.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hua YW, Chi MC, Lo HF, Kuo LY, Ku KL, Lin LL: Adsorption-elution purification of chimeric stearothermophilus leucine aminopeptidase II with the raw-starch-binding activity. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005, 21: 689-694. 10.1007/s11274-004-3853-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hua YW, Chi MC, Lo HF, Hsu WH, Lin LL: Fusion of Bacillus stearothermophilus leucine aminopeptidase II with the raw-starch-binding domain of Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 α-amylase generates a chimeric enzyme with enhanced thermostability and catalytic activity. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004, 31: 273-277.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Neff JA, Tresco PA, Caldwell KD: Surface modification for controlled studies of cell-ligand interactions. Biomaterials. 1999, 20: 2377-2393. 10.1016/S0142-9612(99)00166-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shoseyov O, Shani Z, Levy I: Carbohydrate Binding Modules: Biochemical Properties and Novel Applications. MMBR. 2006, 70: 283-295.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carvalho JM, Moreira SMG, Maia J, Gama M: Characterization of dextrin-based hydrogels: rheology, biocompatibility and degradation. 2008Google Scholar
- Galbraith CG, Yamada KM, Sheetz MP: The relationship between force and focal complex development. J Cell Biol. 2002, 159: 695-705. 10.1083/jcb.200204153.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferreira LAR, Lamghari M, Barbosa MA, Gil MH, Cabrita AMS, Dordick JS: Biocompatibility of chemoenzymatically derived dextran-acrylate hydrogels. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 2004, 68 (3): 584-596.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Autissier AD, Le Visage C: Pullulan-based hydrogel for smooth muscle cell culture. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007, 82: 336-342.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Burgess B, Myles JL, Dickinson RB: Quantitative analysis of adhesion-mediated cell migration in three-dimensional gels of RGD-grafted collagen. Ann Biomed Eng. 2000, 28: 110-118. 10.1114/1.259.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- DiMilla P, Stone JA, Quinn JA, Albelda SM, Lauffenburger DA: Maximal migration of human smooth muscle cells on fibronectin and type IV collagen occurs at an intermediate attachment strength. J Cell Biol. 1993, 122: 729-737. 10.1083/jcb.122.3.729.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.