Binding specificity of selected phage. Panel A shows the specific binding of phage selected from bio-panning against crude cobra snake venom. One hundred microgram of lyophilized crude cobra (Naja kaouthia) and green pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) snake venom were immobilized onto well of ELISA plate and incubated with the representative phage clone. Bound phage particles were detected by ELISA. The average OD405nm values and standard errors are shown. Panel B illustrates binding activity of two phage clones selected from bio-panning with cholangioma against different cell lines. KKU-100 is a human cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer) cell line; COS-7 is an African Green Monkey SV40-transfected kidney fibroblast cell line; and HepG2 is a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line. The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde before incubating with individual phage.