Skip to main content

Table 1 Variables (X) considered in t-test analysis

From: Effects of research tool patents on biotechnology innovation in a developing country: A case study of South Korea

Variable Score   Definition
Main effect of patents +1 (positive terms) Fostering information sharing, improving productivity
  --1 (negative terms) Increase in costs, restrictions on access to information, stifling effect on subsequent innovation
Evaluating effects of patents on innovation --2 ~ +2   --2 = highly negative; --1 = negative;
0 = neither negative nor positive;
+1 = positive; +2 = highly positive