Characterisation of endogenous promoters in Physcomitrella patens . (A) Quantification of fucosyltransferase promoter (FTP) and xylosyltransferase promoter (XTP) activity. Promoters again are compared with the activity of the CaMV 35S promoter (cp. Fig. 2). Deletion constructs of FTP (B) and XTP (C) were functionally analysed. Maps of the various deletion constructs are shown next to their corresponding luciferase expression levels. The results of each deletion construct are given as percentage of the FTP and XTP activity, respectively. The begin of each deletion construct relative to the ATG start codon is given in brackets. The promoter regions of the genes include 5'-untranslated regions and in the case of the fucosyltransferase also the first intron of the gene, shown as black bar. All values are the average of four to six independent experiments, whereas all samples were measured in triplicates. The activities measured with the deletion fragments were expressed as a percentage of the activity obtained with the complete FTP and XTP, respectively. Bars represent standard deviations (SD). FL: firefly luciferase; 35ST: CaMV 35S terminator; n: number of replication. (D) Illustration of possible transcription influencing elements discussed in the text (identified by: http://www.dna.affrc.go.jp/htdocs/PLACE/signalscan.html. r:reverse strand.