Regeneration and transformation of C. roseus. A The regenerative phase of C. roseus (1: Sowing in MS medium; 2: Callus induction in MSCP1 medium; 3, 4: Shoots initiation in MSCP2 and MSCP3 medium separately). B Shooted plantlet. C Rooted plantlet. D, E Transgenic plantlets in soil. F Flower seedlings. Scale bar = 3 cm in A, 1 cm in B, F, 2 cm in C and 1.5 cm in D.