Prevention of abdominal adhesions in a rat abrasion model. A, The establishment of rat model of abdominal sidewall defect-cecum abrasion. B, PECE hydrogel applied on the injured abdominal wall and cecum. C, Adhesion was observed in a saline-treated rat. D, No apparent adhesion was observed in a PECE gel-treated rat, with healed abdominal wall and cecum.