Site-directed in vitro immunization leads to a complete human monoclonal IgG4λ that binds specifically to the CDR2 region of CTLA-4 (CD152) without interfering the engagement of natural ligands
© Chin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007
Received: 11 December 2006
Accepted: 23 August 2007
Published: 23 August 2007
The ability to acquire fully human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with pre-defined specificities is critical to the development of molecular tags for the analysis of receptor function in addition to promising immunotherapeutics. Yet most of the arriving affinity maturated and complete human immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules, which are actually derived from single human B cells, have not widely been used to study the conserved self antigens (Ags) such as CD152 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, CTLA-4) because proper hosts are lacking.
Here we developed an optimized protocol for site-directed in vitro immunizing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by using a selected epitope of human CD152, an essential receptor involved in down-regulation of T cell activation. The resultant stable trioma cell lines constantly produce anti-CD152 mAb (γ4λhuCD152), which contains variable (V) regions of the heavy chain and the light chain derived from the VH3 and Vλ human germline genes, respectively, and yet displays an unusual IgG4 isotype. Interestingly, γ4λhuCD152 has a basic pI not commonly found in myeloid monoclonal IgG4λs as revealed by the isoelectric focusing (IEF) analysis. Furthermore, γ4λhuCD152 binds specifically, with nanomolar affinity, to an extracellular constituency encompassing the putative second complementarity determining region (CDR2) of CD152, whereby it can react to activated CD3+ cells.
In a context of specific cell depletion and conditioned medium,in vitro induction of human Abs against a conserved self Ag was successfully acquired and a relatively basic mAb, γ4λhuCD152, with high affinity to CDR2 of CD152 was thus obtained. Application of such a human IgG4λ mAb with designated CDR2 specificity may impact upon and prefer for CD152 labeling both in situ and ex situ, as it does not affect the binding of endogenous B7 ligands and can localize into the confined immunological synapse which may otherwise prevent the access of whole IgG1 molecules.
Fueled by ever-growing demand, complete human mAbs have become one of the most important disciplines for obtaining research and therapeutic leads. Currently, the identification of such materials with desired specificities requires either selecting from artificial genetic Ig libraries [1, 2] or immunizing transgenic mice that harbored large human Ig loci [3, 4]. Unfortunately, because of their dependence on Ig gene shuffling, information about the original pairing of heavy (H) and light (L) chains inherent in a single human B cell has been limited. An alternative strategy for obtaining complete human mAbs would be to use combined heterotopic B- and T-cell epitopes as an immunogen in human lymphocyte cultures, followed by standard hybridoma and/or cloning procedures. Initially, the validity of this site-directed in vitro immunization approach has been established in the procurement of gp120-specific monoclonal IgM from seronegative, non-infected lymphocytes . Viral neutralizing, affinity maturated and isotype switched IgG responses were subsequently confirmed in human naïve B lymphocytes [6–8]. However, from prior reports, it was unclear whether B-cell epitopes present on a self-protein would also elicit significant IgG responses in the site-directed in vitro immunization regimen; therefore, a molecule with its existence on lymphocytes represents an ideal candidate for such a study.
CD152 belongs to a group of immunomodulating receptors, collectively termed as CD28 superfamily , and represents one of the major inhibitory receptors involved in co-stimulatory pathways regulating both humoral and cellular immune response [10, 11]. These inhibitory effects are due in part to a higher avidity of binding by the common endogenous agonists, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), compared with its stimulatory homologue, CD28 [12, 13]. The lurch toward CD152 of these agonists reduces T-cell proliferation and cytokine production, resulting in attenuated immune responses, and thus mediates tolerance and/or anergy [14, 15]. CD152 has also been demonstrated to promote clonal anergy development by limiting cell cycle progression during the primary response in vivo , thus CD152 opened up the possibility to study whether the current knowledge in site-directed in vitro immunization allows any generalizations to be made that will consequently be useful in developing human mAbs against self Ags.
Structural findings indicate that the CD152 protein is composed of disulfide-linked homodimers of extracellular IgV domains. Each domain consists of two layered β-sheets with ten strands (A, A', B, C, C', C", D, E, F and G) [17–19]. Furthermore, one mutational  and two crystallographic [17, 18] studies have independently pointed out that CDR1-like (the B-C loop) and CDR3-like (the F-G loop) regions in CD152 directly bind B7 ligands, whereas the role of CDR2 was very insignificant, if it played a part at all. In contrast to the harmonized results to the relative contribution of individual CDR's, a severe discrepancy existed even in the span of CDR2. In the mutational model, the extracellular consecutive 51AATYM55 motif was implicated to be CDR2  whereas co-crystallographic structures characterized the C'-C" loop encompassing a single Met 55 as CDR2 [17, 19]. To further complicate the picture of functionality, the downstream M10 (59ELT61) and M11 (66SICT69) epitopes, localized between the C" and D strands, have been revealed to play an important pharmacological role upon Ab binding . Thus not only is the dimension of CDR2 controversial but also, additional domains potentially involved in certain functions of CD152 are suggested. The suggestion of an important contribution in this area defined by the Met 55 core (51AATYMMGNELTFLDDSICT69) is further strengthened by observing a considerable conservation across all identified CD152, with six of the 19 amino acids having identical residues to the human sequence .
Here we explored the stimulating effect of the Met 55-cored sequence by invoking the optimized process of site-directed in vitro immunization and somatic cell hybridization  to target this particular area. We showed that human Abs that are specific for the CDR2-encompassed Met 55-cored region could be regularly generated in vitro from normal donors after sensitization with a heterotopic peptide. Moreover, the resultant human IgG4λ mAb is useful to probe and label CDR152 in situ and ex situ during the responses involving such a particular self molecule.
Procuring the desired Ab response by site-directed in vitroimmunization and electrofusion
As shown in Additional File 1, although there was not a statistically significant increase, the removal of IL-10+ cells before secondary peptide stimulation yielded the highest frequency of specific IgG-producing cells.
Wells containing anti-CD152 IgG level that was five times higher than anti-murine IgG2a were subsequently pooled for electrofusion. One fusion yielded eleven clones secreting anti-CD152 Abs. Three of them were subcloned and found to be of the IgG4 isotype. To select a mAb for further characterization, two parameters were taken into account: the secretory capacity of the trioma, estimated from the ELISA titer and the relative specificity, reflected by the reactivities to other unrelated antigens such as tetanus toxoid, bovine serum albumin, and uncoated wells. Figure 1B also demonstrates that the selected monoclonal had a near-background reaction with unrelated Ags. Long-term (over a period of 60 months of continuous culture) stable Ab production in a concentration above 4 μg/ml/107 trioma cells in spent medium was consistently observed.
Presentation of recognized epitope on mitogen-activated human T cells and the immunogen
To investigate whether the specificity observed in ELISA was also applicable for the activated human T cells in situ, we used the mitogen-dependent stimulation system, where peripheral T cells were activated with anti-CD3, PHA, ConA, or the combination of PMA/ionomycin or PHA/PMA. CD152-expressing T cells were numerated in CD3+ population by flow cytometry. After a 72-h culture period, few CD3+ T cells without stimulation were stained by our human mAb whilst a large number of CD152+CD3+ T cells were constantly observed after activation with PMA and PHA (Fig. 1B). Control human IgG4λ myeloma protein failed to distinguish among the activation statuses and the present mAb did not react with activated murine CD3+ T cells (data not shown).
Immunological and physicochemical properties of the mAb
The equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for the purified intact γ4λhuCD152 was determined by an IAsys analysis. The rate constant was evaluated directly from the sensogram using five cycles of soluble mAb binding to the immobilized CD152-muIg. Figure 3D reveals that, with the analysis of extent and association in single phase, the Kd was deduced to be 4 × 10-9 M.
Little or no competition to B7- CD152 binding of γ4λhuCD152 both ex situ and in situ
In order to investigate the binding effects more thoroughly, and to provide further information on their possible in situ relevance, it was assessed whether labeling of endogenous CD152, a known rare Ag expressed only on activated T cells, by different mAbs, influences the profile of detection. A well-contrasted cytometric picture of total CD152-binding and a clearly distinguishable concentrated pattern of labeling were evidenced on PHA/PMA-activated T cells by using γ4λhuCD152, indicating a lower nonspecific binding over the antagonistic BNI3 (Fig. 5B). Hence, non-ligand competitive γ4λhuCD152 could be used as a new and refined probe which should be useful for sensitive assay and localization of CD152 both in situ and ex situ.
Previously published techniques for in vitro immunization required pre-treatment of PBMC with chemotoxic agents, such as L-leucyl-L-leucin methyl ester hydrobromide (LeuLeuOMe), in order to prevent the "suppressing populations" dominating the response . Unfortunately, residual cytotoxicity and relative redundancy of LeuLeuOMe interferes with subsequent survival and peptide-driven stimulation and therefore the process requires careful timing for the greatest effectiveness. It was found that when Abs were used as more selective reagents to specific removal of CD56+ and IL-10+ cells, no LeuLeuOMe pretreatment is necessary [see Additional File 1]. Advantages of this improved procedure over the conventional procedure are clearly illustrated in the present study, not only in the reduction in sample manipulation, but also in successfully targeting human Ab responses to a pre-determined epitope without the use of experimental animals or sensitized donors. We believe this first reported human mAb directed against a self physiological receptor also signifies a constructive method for recruiting and unleashing the responses to physiological receptors that may not be recognized by donors' own immune system in vivo.
We found that the ex situ CD152 binding of CD80 increased with the increasing concentration of γ4λhuCD152 (Fig. 5A). Whether this observation also applied in situ is yet to be verified. However, human non-antagonistic anti-CD152 scFv fragments, obtained from a synthetic phage library, were indeed documented to synergize with CD80–CD152 but not CD86–CD152 association , although to a less extent as compared with the present study. As described above, the CDR2-like Met 55-cored epitope, 54YMMGNELTFLDDSIC68, on CD152 may not be directly involved in the binding of CD80 but the F-G (CDR3-like) and B-C (CDR1-like) loops provide direct contacts and additional stabilization to CD80, respectively [18, 20]. Thus CD80–CD152 binding enhancement by γ4λhuCD152 (and possibly mAbs specific to this particular CDR2-like site) may be attributed to an extended protrusion of the CDR3-like region that facilitates CD80 engagement, or to a further segmentation that fixes the relative orientation of the binding domains for an additional spacing selectivity. These possibilities are not mutually exclusive.
Despite the fact that the present mAb was derived from healthy human donors, several mouse mAbs with similar, but not identical, binding specificities were previously available in literature. For example, mAbs with agonist- or antagonist-like activities against human CD152 were obtained from mice immunized with the recombinant receptor or mitogen-activated human PBMCs in 1995  and 1999 . In the earlier case, the epitopes responsible for the functional activity of the Abs were finely identified. This analysis documented that the CDR2-adjacent epitope (60LTFLDD65) and the conformational or CDR3 epitope (102PPYYL106) are responsible for agonist- and antagonist-like activities, respectively. In addition, using a bispecific tandem single-chain variable fragment recognizing 59ELT61 and 66SICT69, another study has revealed a likely CD152 inverse agonist of Ab nature . Ultimately systematic studies are needed to clarify the pharmacological effects of the present human monoclonal IgG4λ with an epitope of a comparable stride (59~69 vs. 54~68).
A conspicuous feature of the present findings is that it is now possible to screen and construct isotype-switched, high affinity human mAbs with pre-defined specificities than previously possible. Consequently, mAbs are able to mimic ligands action commonly found in small synthetic molecules and to facilitate comprehensive receptor-based drug designs. Another peculiarity, as Figure 3A shows the simultaneous presence of IgG4Fc and Cλ human Ig chains associated with the specificity, is that γ4λhuCD152 can be described as a comparable if not a fundamentally authentic human IgG4. Because IgG4 does not activate the complement cascade and it is much more compact than other IgG's , accentuating its advantages for acting in the immunological synapse where a spatial limitation is applied . Although the current example comes from CD152, obviously it can also apply to other biological receptors and their cognate ligands.
In the present study, we started with an improved, more selective in vitro immunization protocol and worked toward fully human mAbs against a representing self Ag, CD152. Considerable progress has thus been made in this area as a result of a novel human IgG4λ mAb against CD152. The application of such a mAb with designated CDR2 specificity may impact upon and favor CD152 detection and/or isolation of human CD4+CD25+CD152+ regulatory T cells . The present study also opens up the possibility of probing and perhaps controlling T cell activation using highly specific, less immunogenic Ig proteins. Further deciphering the biological functions mediated by γ4λhuCD152 may lead to a greater understanding of the regulation and differentiation of immune responses.
Culture materials Ag and Ab reagents
The culture medium used was RPMI-l640 (HyClone, Logan, UT), supplemented with 1 × non-essential amino acids (Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Life Technologies) and 50 μg/ml of gentamycin and kanamycin (Sinton Chemical & Pharmaceutical, Hsinchu, Taiwan). Purified and biotinylated human CD152-murine Ig fusion protein (CD152-muIg), CD80-muIg and CD86-muIg (Ancell, Bayport, MN) were used in Ag-specific and competing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), together with peroxidase-labeled goat antibodies against human IgG and IgM (Zymed Laboratories, South San Francisco, CA) or avidin horseradish peroxidase (eBioscience, San Diego, CA) as the reporting system. The fluorochrome-conjugated mouse mAb against human IgGs and human CD3 (UCHT1; mouse IgG1), together with rat mAb against mouse IgG2a were commercially available from Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems (San Jose, CA) and Abcam (Cambridge, UK). The anti-CD3 (OKT3; mouse IgG2a) used for T cell activation and the antagonistic anti-CD152 (BNI3; mouse IgG2a) were purchased from eBioscience and Abcam, respectively.
Preparation of human PBMC
Plasma and buffy coat samples from healthy routine blood donors, screened negative for HIV-1/2, HTLV-I/II, HCV, HBsAg and containing normal levels of alanine transferase (ALT), were obtained from the Tainan and Hualien Blood Centers, Taiwan Blood Services Foundation. Written informed consents were obtained from five repeatedly-healthy regular blood donors after an explanation of the nature, purpose, and potential risks of the study and then 230 ml of whole blood was used for the purpose of site-directed in vitro immunization. PBMC's were isolated by density centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque (GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden) as described elsewhere.
Magnetic cell purification and depletion
PBMC's were magnetically labeled with CD45RO MACS® microbeads (Miltenyi Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany) then separated by a VarioMACS™ (Miltenyi) instrument according to the manufacturer's instructions. The purified CD45RO+ T cells were cultured at a density of 2 × 106 cells/ml in the culture medium supplemented with 50 μM 2-mercaptoethanol and 10 μg/ml pokeweed mitogen (PWM; Sigma, St. Louis, MO). After 24 h, cells were removed by 400 × g centrifugation to collect CD45RO+ T cell replacing factor. Removal of cytotoxic cell populations, which inhibit in vitro immunization , was similarly performed by using colloidal super-paramagnetic microbeads conjugated to monoclonal anti-human CD8 and anti-CD56 antibodies (Miltenyi). Removal of IL-10-producing cells was achieved by using rat anti-human IL-10 (SouthernBiotech, Birmingham, AL) and goat anti-rat IgG microbeads (Miltenyi).
Site-directed in vitroimmunization
Cytotoxic cell-depleted PBMCs were immunized in vitro based on a previously described two-step principle . Primary immunization was performed by incubating the cells for 6 days in a medium containing 10 nM of the heterotopic peptide Ag (QYIKANSKFIGITELAATYMMGNELTFLDDSICT; Fine Research Biochem, Taoyuan, Taiwan), 50 μM 2-mercaptoethanol, 10% heat-inactivated human serum, 0.05 ng/ml recombinant human (rh) IL-2 (eBioscience), and 25% (v/v) CD45RO+ T cell replacing factor. For secondary immunization, 3 × 107 primary-immunized cells were mixed with the peptide in a flask that had been immobilized overnight with 5 mg/ml of CD40L (CD154; eBioscience) together with 1 × 107 QYIKANSKFIGITEL (Fine Research Biochem)-stimulated CD4+ T cells and 5 ng/ml rh IL-15 (eBioscience). The cells were cultured for 3–5 days in a medium supplemented with 5% human serum, 50 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and 10 nM heterotopic peptide Ag. The significance of differences between treated and control cultures was established by using Student's t test. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, ELISA and somatic cell hybridization
The in vitro immunized cells were infected with EBV by virus-containing supernatant derived from the EBV-producing marmoset cell line B95-8 (American Type Culture Collection, ATCC CRL 1612; kindly provided by Dr. L.-F. Sheu, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei). The infected cells were seeded at 105/well in 96-well plates together with mytomycin (Kyowa Hakko Kogyo, Tokyo, Japan)-treated PBMC as feeder cells (104/well) for the establishment of lymphoblastoid cells and screened for Abs by ELISA.
Ag-specific ELISA was performed by coating 0.25 μg/ml purified rhCD152-muIg, 0.5 μg/ml monoclonal mouse IgG2a (mIgG2a; Ancell), 1 μg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA; Sigma) or 1 μg/ml tetanus toxoid (TT; ADImmune, Taichung, Taiwan) onto microtitre plates overnight at 4°C. Culture supernatants were diluted to the desired level in 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), containing 0 5 M sodium chloride and 0.1% Tween-20. Coated plates were incubated with diluted culture supernatants, washed, incubated with peroxidase-labeled goat antibodies against human IgG and IgM and developed (15 min) by addition of 100 μl of the chromogenic substrate o-phenylaenediamine (OPD) (Sigma). The reaction was stopped after 30 min by adding 1 M sulphuric acid, and the absorbances were read at 490 nm.
Somatic cell hybridization was generated by electrofusion. Briefly, Ag-specific EBV-infected lymphoblastoid cells were fused with heteromyeloma cells  in an isotonic medium (280 mM sorbitol, 0.5 mM magnesium acetate, 0.1 mM calcium acetate and 1 mg/ml BSA; pH6.9–7.1). Cell fusion was induced by high-voltage pulses using a BTX Electro Cell Manipulator ECM 2001 (Harvard Apparatus, Holliston, MA). Ag-specific hybrids were selected and cloned by limiting dilution.
To define the specific epitope of human CD152 recognized by the mAb, we used peptide arrays (Genesis Biotech, Taipei, Taiwan and Fine Research Biochem,) containing in-situ synthesized peptides immobilized on special membrane. In brief, 1 μg/mL of protein A (Proteus MIDI kit, Pro-Chem, Littleton, MA)-purified mAb was incubated by shaking in room temperature for 2 h. After washing, the membrane-bound mAb was then visualized by diluted anti-human IgG conjugated with peroxidase (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, West Grove, PA) and FAST™ DAB (Sigma). The amount of bound mAb was calculated by Image-Pro Plus 4.5 software (Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD) on the scanned images.
Flow cytometry analyses
The surface expression of the CD152 epitope recognized by the present mAb was analyzed using two-color flow cytometry on mitogen-stimulated PBMC's by a FACSCaliber™ flow cytometer and CellQuest™ software (Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems). 2 × 106 isolated PBMC's were resuspended in supplemented culture medium and treated with either anti-human CD3 (OKT3; final concentrations in culture 10 μg/ml, eBioscience), concanavalin A (Con A; final concentrations in culture 10 μg/ml, Sigma), 10 μg/ml phytohemagglutinin (PHA; final concentrations in culture 1 μg/ml, GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences), a combination of phorbol 12-myristate acetate (PMA; 50 ng/ml, Sigma) + ionomycin (1 μM, Sigma) or a combination of PHA (1 μg/ml) + PMA (50 ng/ml). Logarithmically amplified fluorescence data were collected on 10,000 CD3+ cells. All flow cytometry staining procedures were performed at 4°C in cytometry buffer. For extracellular detection of CD152, activated cells were first surface stained with the mAb or isotype control at 4°C, followed by anti-human IgG-FITC and anti-CD3-PE (Becton Dickinson) staining.
RT-PCR assays for deduction of Ab primary structures
The Ab primary structures were deduced by cDNA sequencing from cloned trioma cells. Briefly, poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from by using Dynabeads® mRNA DIRECT™ Kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Purified mRNA was then employed as the reaction template in reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). The RT-PCR was carried out with Titan One Tube RT-PCR System™ (Roche Diagnostics Corporation, Indianapolis, IN). PCR primers (1 μM) used to amplify human VH and VL were the HuVH-JH set (forward: 5'-caggt caact taagg gagtc tgg-3' and reverse: 5'-tgaga gacgg tgacc gtggt ccc-3') and the HuVλ set (forward: 5'-tccta tgtgc tgact cagcc acc-3' and reverse: 5'-accta ggacg gtgac cttgg tccc-3'), respectively. The 37 temperature cycles include: one 2-min denature cycle of 94°C; 35 cycles of 3-min denaturation at 94°C, 1-min annealing and extension at 68°C; and a final 10-min extension cycle of 68°C. Single banded PCR fragments were seperated by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA fragments were purified from gel by Wizard PCR Preps DNA purification system (Promega, Madison, WI). The purified products were subjected to nucleotide sequencing. Sequences were verified (Molecular Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory, Dr. Chip Biotechnology, Inc., Taipei, Taiwan) and converted to corresponding amino acids.
Isoelectric point electrophoresis and affinity analyses
The isoelectric point of secreted IgG was examined by Novex IEF Gels (Invitrogen). Desalted and dialyzed protein samples were mixed with IEF sample buffer at 1:1 (v/v) ratio. Electrophoresis was performed at following condition: 100 V for 1 h, 200 V for 1 h and 500 V for 30 mins. After electrophoresis, gels were removed from gel cassette and fixed in 10% trichloroacetic acid for 30 mins. Fixed gel was developed by Coomassie brilliant blue staining or silver staining. The broad-range calibration kit for pI determinations (#17-0471-01, pH 3–10; GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences) was included as the standard. The isoelectric point of interested proteins was calculated by Phoretix 2D Elite software (Nonlinear Dynamics, Durham, NC).
The affinity of the mAb was determined against CD152-muIg with an IAsys optical biosensor (Affinity Sensors, Cambridge, UK) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Briefly, 200 μg/ml dialyzed and diluted CD152-muIg was immobilized on the activated surface of carboxymethyl dextran cuvettes in 10 mM of sodium acetate buffer at pH 3.8. After conditioning with 10 mM HCl, immobilization of 2 mg/mL CD152-muIg resulted in a response of 1100 arc sec. This represents the highest immobilization response for CD152 and gives a ligate binding capacity (Rmax) of 300 arc sec. Serial dilutions of the mAb in PBS, i.e. 1.34 × 10-9 M, 6.70 × 10-9 M, 1.34 × 10-8 M, 2.68 × 10-8 M and 5.36 × 10-8 M, were added to the CD152-coated cuvettes (final volume, 50 μl). Affinity constants (Kd) were calculated from these measurements as kdiss/kass by using the FASTFIT® program provided by the manufacturer.
- Complementarity determining region.
- Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4.
- Isoelectric focusing.
- Equilibrium dissociation (affinity) constant.
- L-leucyl-L-leucin methyl ester hydrobromide.
- Monoclonal antibody.
- Peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
- Phosphate buffered saline (20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2 containing 145 mM NaCl).
- The variable regions of Ab heavy chain.
- The variable regions of Ab light chain.
This study was supported in part by the SBIR grant 1Z930280 from the Ministry of Economic Affairs and by a grant from Hualien Armed Forces General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan (805 HC93-04). We thank Dr. Hsiao-Han Liu, Dept. of Biological Science and Technology, Kaohsiung I-Shou University, Taiwan, for critical help in IAsys.
- Winter G, Griffiths AD, Hawkins RE, Hoogenboom HR: Making antibodies by phage display technology. Annu Rev Immunol. 1994, 12: 433-455. 10.1146/annurev.iy.12.040194.002245.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kretzschmar T, von Rüden T: Antibody discovery: phage display. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2002, 13: 598-602. 10.1016/S0958-1669(02)00380-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kellermann SA, Green LL: Antibody discovery: the use of transgenic mice to generate human monoclonal antibodies for therapeutics. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2002, 13: 593-597. 10.1016/S0958-1669(02)00354-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Magadán S, Valladares M, Suarez E, Sanjuán I, Molina A, Ayling C, Davies SL, Zou X, Williams GT, Neuberger MS, Brüggemann M, Gambón F, Diíz-Espada F, González-Fernández A: Production of antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies: comparison of mice carrying IgH/kappa or IgH/kappa/lambda transloci. Biotechniques. 2002, 33: 680-690.Google Scholar
- Chin LT, Hinkula J, Levi M, Ohlin M, Wahren B, Borrebaeck CA: Site-directed primary in vitro immunization: Production of HIV-1 neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies from sero-negative donors. Immunology. 1994, 81: 428-434.Google Scholar
- Chin LT, Malmborg AC, Kristensson K, Hinkula J, Wahren B, Borrebaeck CA: Mimicking the humoral immune response in vitro results in antigen-specific isotype switching by autologous T helper cells. Eur J Immunol. 1995, 25: 657-663. 10.1002/eji.1830250305.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dueñas M, Chin LT, Malmborg AC, Casalvilla R, Ohlin M, Borrebaeck CA: In vitro immunization of naive human B cells yields high affinity immunoglobulin G as illustrated by phage display. Immunology. 1996, 89: 1-7. 10.1046/j.1365-2567.1996.d01-708.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zafiropoulos A, Andersson E, Krambovitis E, Borrebaeck CA: Induction of antigen-specific isotype switching by in vitro immunization of human naive B lymphocytes. J Immunol Methods. 1997, 200: 181-190. 10.1016/S0022-1759(96)00207-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sharpe AH, Freeman GJ: The B7-CD28 superfamily. Nat Rev Immunol. 2002, 2: 116-126. 10.1038/nri727.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Linsley PS, Brady W, Urnes M, Grosmaire LS, Damle NK, Ledbetter JA: CTLA-4 is a second receptor for the B cell activation antigen B7. J Exp Med. 1991, 174: 561-569. 10.1084/jem.174.3.561.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krummel MF, Allison JP: CTLA-4 engagement inhibits IL-2 accumulation and cell cycle progression upon activation of resting T cells. J Exp Med. 1996, 183: 2533-2540. 10.1084/jem.183.6.2533.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Greene JL, Leytze GM, Emswiler J, Peach R, Bajorath J, Cosand W, Linsley PS: Covalent dimerization of CD28/CTLA-4 and oligomerization of CD80/CD86 regulate T cell costimulatory interactions. J Biol Chem. 1996, 271: 26762-26771. 10.1074/jbc.271.43.26762.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- van der Merwe PA, Bodian DL, Daenke S, Linsley P, Davis SJ: CD80 (B7-1) binds both CD28 and CTLA-4 with a low affinity and very fast kinetics. J Exp Med. 1997, 185: 393-404. 10.1084/jem.185.3.393.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carreno BM, Bennett F, Chau TA, Ling V, Luxenberg D, Jussif J, Baroja ML, Madrenas J: CTLA-4 (CD152) can inhibit T cell activation by two different mechanisms depending on its level of cell surface expression. J Immunol. 2000, 165: 1352-1356.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chai JG, Vendetti S, Amofah E, Dyson J, Lechler R: CD152 ligation by CD80 on T cells is required for the induction of unresponsiveness by costimulation-deficient antigen presentation. J Immunol. 2000, 165: 3037-3042.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vanasek TL, Khoruts A, Zell T, Mueller DL: Antagonistic roles for CTLA-4 and the mammalian target of rapamycin in the regulation of clonal anergy: enhanced cell cycle progression promotes recall antigen responsiveness. J Immunol. 2001, 167: 5636-5644.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz JC, Zhang X, Fedorov AA, Nathenson SG, Almo SC: Structural basis for co-stimulation by the human CTLA-4/B7-2 complex. Nature. 2001, 410: 604-608. 10.1038/35069112.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stamper CC, Zhang Y, Tobin JF, Erbe DV, Ikemizu S, Davis SJ, Stahl ML, Seehra J, Somers WS, Mosyak L: Crystal structure of the B7-1/CTLA-4 complex that inhibits human immune responses. Nature. 2001, 410: 608-611. 10.1038/35069118.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz JC, Zhang X, Nathenson SG, Almo SC: Structural mechanisms of costimulation. Nat Immunol. 2002, 3: 427-434. 10.1038/ni0502-427.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Peach RJ, Bajorath J, Brady W, Leytze G, Greene J, Naemura J, Linsley PS: Complementarity determining region 1 (CDR1)- and CDR3-analogous regions in CTLA-4 and CD28 determine the binding to B7-1. J Exp Med. 1994, 180: 2049-2058. 10.1084/jem.180.6.2049.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Madrenas J, Chau LA, Teft WA, Wu PW, Jussif J, Kasaian M, Carreno BM, Ling V: Conversion of CTLA-4 from inhibitor to activator of T cells with a bispecific tandem single-chain Fv ligand. J Immunol. 2004, 172: 5948-5956.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chin LT, Cheng JY, Lu SC, Chang CHA, Chu CH, Meng CL: Establishment and evaluation of mouse-human heteromyeloma cell lines obtained by electrofusion for immortalizing human immunoglobulins. J Biomed Lab Sci. 2001, 13: 117-123.Google Scholar
- Ohlin M, Danielsson L, Carlsson R, Borrebaeck CA: The effect of leucyl-leucine methyl ester on proliferation and Ig secretion of EBV-transformed human B lymphocytes. Immunology. 1989, 66: 485-490.Google Scholar
- Nakamura Y, Myers BD: Charge selectivity of proteinuria in diabetic glomerulopathy. Diabetes. 1988, 9: 1202-1211. 10.2337/diabetes.37.9.1202.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Steiner K, Waase I, Rau T, Dietrich M, Fleischer B, Broker BM: Enhanced expression of CTLA-4 (CD152) on CD4+ T cells in HIV infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 1999, 115: 451-457. 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1999.00806.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pistillo MP, Tazzari PL, Ellis JH, Ferrara GB: Molecular characterization and applications of recombinant scFv antibodies to CD152 co-stimulatory molecule. Tissue Antigens. 2000, 55: 229-238. 10.1034/j.1399-0039.2000.550306.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gribben JG, Freeman GJ, Boussiotis VA, Rennert P, Jellis CL, Greenfield E, Barber M, Restivo VA, Ke X, Gray GS, Nadler LM: CTLA4 mediates antigen-specific apoptosis of human T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995, 92: 811-815. 10.1073/pnas.92.3.811.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aalberse RC, Schuurman J: IgG4 breaking the rules. Immunology. 2002, 105: 9-19. 10.1046/j.0019-2805.2001.01341.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grakoui A, Bromley SK, Sumen C, Davis MM, Shaw AS, Allen PM, Dustin ML: The immunological synapse: a molecular machine controlling T cell activation. Science. 1999, 285: 221-227. 10.1126/science.285.5425.221.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dieckmann D, Plottner H, Berchtold S, Berger T, Schuler G: Ex vivo isolation and characterization of CD4+CD25+ T cells with regulatory properties from human blood. J Exp Med. 2001, 193: 1303-1310. 10.1084/jem.193.11.1303.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.