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Table 1 Ions formed at pH 8 for several interference agents (bicarbonate, citrate, EDTA, and phosphate)

From: Interference chromatography: a novel approach to optimizing chromatographic selectivity and separation performance for virus purification

Buffer Species pKa Ion Form at pH 8
Bicarbonate 6.40, 10.30 1
Phosphate 2.10, 7.20, 12.30 2
EDTA 2.00, 2.70, 6.20, 10.31 3
Citrate 3.13, 4.76, 6.40 3