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Table 3 Overall average (±SD) inlet and outlet concentrations (in mg l− 1 except for temperature and pH) and average percentage removal (%R) of wastewater constituents. Minimum and maximum values are indicated in brackets

From: Suitability of nutrients removal from brewery wastewater using a hydroponic technology with Typha latifolia

Parameter Inlet Outlet
Control %R HUs %R
TKN 33.29 ± 3.13 (19–43) 19.77 ± 1.87 (11–25) 41 10.14 ± 3.99 (5.38–17.67) 69
NH4+ − N 24 ± 1.63 (18–31) 18 ± 1.09 (14–23) 25 11.15 ± 0.69 (10.40–12.33) 54
NO3 - N 13 ± 3.12 (8.70–17) 9.64 ± 2.52 (6.70–13) 26 6.4 ± 1.91 (4.30–9) 51
PO43− - P 14.86 ± 5 (8–23) 9.87 ± 2.57 (6.40–14) 34 6.26 ± 2.74 (3.44–10.80) 58
DO 0.83 ± 0.39 (0.3–1.4) 0.03 ± 0.05 (0–0.1) 0.02 ± 0.03 (0–0.07)
pH 6.4 ± 1.02 (4.8–7.8) 7.6 ± 0.64 (6.8–8.7) 8.1 ± 0.17 (8–8.3)
T(°C) 31.57 ± 4.72 (26–40) 20.29 ± 1.50 (18–22) 19.97 ± 0.86 (19.14–20.86)