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Table 1 Design characteristics and operating parameters of the gravel bed hydroponic treatment units

From: Suitability of nutrients removal from brewery wastewater using a hydroponic technology with Typha latifolia

Design parameters Values
Number of treatment units 4
Length (L) 2 m
Width (W) 0.75 m
Unit area 1.50 m2
Gravel depth 0.40 m
Gross capacity 0.60 m3
Macrophyte type Typha latifolia
Operational parameters
 Hydraulic loading rate 2.33 cm d− 1
Loading rate
 TKN 0.44–1 g m−2d−1
 NH4+ − N 0.42–0.72 g m− 2d− 1
 NO3 - N 0.2–0.4 g m− 2d− 1
 PO43−-P 0.19–0.54 g m−2d− 1
 Hydraulic retention time 5 days