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Table 1 Potential therapies/supplementations for patients with celiac disease

From: The production of a recombinant tandem single chain fragment variable capable of binding prolamins triggering celiac disease

Site of action Target Principle of effect Information/Drug Phase of clinical trial ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier Ref.
Intra-luminal Flours Pretreatment with lactobacilli, transamidation of gliadin Microbial Transglutaminase and Lysine Ethyl Ester (WHETMIT) Phase 2 NCT02472119 [5]
Prolamin Polymetric binders, form high affinity complexes with alpha-gliadin Poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-styrene sulfonate BL-7010 Phase 2 NCT01990885 [5]
Prolamin Antibodies or Antibody-fragments with high affinity to prolamin ➔ neutralizing effect Tandem single chain Fragment variable directed against prolamins of different grains (Glutosin ™)    [10]
Prolamin Peptidase based, enzymes to degrade prolamin • Cystein-Endopeptidas B2, Prolin-Endopeptidase (ALV003), • Cocktail of microbial enzymes (STAN 1) • Prolyl endopeptidase (AN-PEP) Phase 1 + 2 Phase 1 + 2 Phase 1 + 2 NCT01255696 NCT00962182 NCT00810654 [5, 11]
Prolamin Bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species that hydrolyse gliadin Bifidobacteria infantis and lactobacillus species   NCT01257620 [5]
Prolamin Desensitizing Necator americanus • (NaCeD) • (NainCeD-3) Phase 1 + 2 Phase 1 NCT01661933 NCT02754609 [5]
Epithelial layer Zonulin receptors Antagonizing Zonulin recetors, tight junction modulation Larazotide acetate (AT-1001) Phase 2 NCT01396213 [5, 12]
Transcellular gliadin transport Inhibition of sIgA-CD71 mediated transport     [5]
IL 15 IL 15 action is blocked • Humanized Mik-Beta-1 Monoclonal Antibody Directed Toward IL-2/IL-15R Beta (CD122) (Hu-Mik- Beta-1) • Human monoclonal antibody (AMG 714) Phase 1 Phase 2 NCT01893775 NCT02637141 [12]
Lamina propria HLA- DQ2 or DQ8 Blocking HLA-DQ2 or DQ8     [12]
CCR3 CCR3 blocking to repress T cell homing CCX282-B   NCT00540657 [13]
TG2 Inhibition of TG2     [12]
Cathepsin-S inhibitor Participate in the degradation of antigenic proteins to peptides for presentation on MHC class II RG7625 Phase 1 NCT02679014 [14]
Immune system Immune response Vaccination Nexvax2 Phase 1 NCT02528799 [12]