Artemisinic acid production by the engineered yeast strain. (A) Plasmid encoding ADS, AMO, and CPR under control of either the Gal1 or Gal10 promoter used to produce artemisinic acid by EPY300. Total (B) and specific (C) artemisinic acid production from EPY300 strain expressing ADS, AMO, and CPR from either pESC-leu2 or pESC-leu2d cultured in either CSM or YPG medium. T indicates triple genes (ADS, AMO, and CPR). Circles and diamonds indicate leu2d and leu2 selection markers. Unfilled symbols indicate selective, minimal medium (CSM), and filled symbols indicate non-selective, rich medium (YPG). (D) Plasmid stabilities of yeast harboring either pRS425-leu2::ADS/AMO/CPR or pRS425-leu2d::ADS/AMO/CPR grown in either CSM or YPG medium at 24, 72, and 120-hr post-induction.