An example of the usefulness of MO-gene mediated knockdown in combination with the dual-luciferase assay for the analysis of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Zebrafish one to eight-cell embryos were microinjected with 6.5 ng VaDNA together with the firefly and Renilla reporter vectors as indicated in Legend to Figure 2 alone or in combination with 4 ng of the indicated morpholinos. Twenty-four hours after microinjection, activation of the NF-κB activation was measured using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System. The results are expressed as normalized luciferase activity relative to control embryos not injected with MOs. Each bar represents the mean ± S.E. of ten replicate samples and the data are representative of three independent experiments. The asterisk denotes statistically significant differences between the indicated samples.