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Table 1 Laser surgical-ablation of individual blastomere cells – Summary

From: Laser surgery of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos using femtosecond laser pulses: Optimal parameters for exogenous material delivery, and the laser's effect on short- and long-term development

Average laser power Beam dwell time Observations
25 mW 5 to 500 ms Region near the blastomere-yolk interface could not be laser ablated. This result was independent of the chosen beam dwell time.
30 mW 50 to 200 ms Region near the blastomere-yolk interface was occasionally laser ablated.
  > 500 ms Laser ablation near the blastomere-yolk region occurred with high reproducibility.
40–45 mW 5 to 500 ms Surgical-ablation near the blastomere-yolk region occurred for the entire beam dwell range. Cavitation bubbles were short lived for beam dwell times ≤ 100 ms. Above 100 ms, cavitation bubbles were large, with increased blastomere-surface damage.
> 45 mW 5 to 500 ms Surgical-ablation persisted for the entire beam dwell range. Laser induced cavitation bubbles were large. A large area of blastomere-surface damage was observed.