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Table 2 Spectral characteristics of GCaMP-like Ca2+ sensors. Excitation/emission wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yield, extinction coefficient and pH stability in the presence of Ca2+are shown

From: Single fluorescent protein-based Ca2+sensors with increased dynamic range

Sensor (F/F0)max Excitation/emission wavelengths, nm Quantum yield Extinction coefficient, M-1cm-1 Relative brightness a pH stability (pKa) Kd for Ca2+, μM
Flash -pericam 8.0 494/514 0.20 16,900 0.10 7.9 0.7
GCaMP1 4.3 488/510 0.05 1,400 0.002 7.1 0.24
GCaMP1.6 4.9 488/509 0.79 3,800 0.09 8.2 0.16
GCaMP2 5.0 487/508 0.93 19,000 0.53 Nd 0.16
Case12 12.0 491/516 0.24 48,000 0.35 7.2 1.0
Case16 16.5 490/516 0.17 50,000 0.28 7.2 1.0
  1. a Calculated brightness compared to that of EGFP.