Gene expression caused by viral promoters in E. coli. Luminescence (Panel A) and amount of lux AB mRNA transcripts determined by Real-time RT-PCR (Panel B) of cultures of E. coli containing fusions between the luxAB genes in the vector pKKlux and the viral promoters P TK (thymidine kinase promoter from HSV1), P PH (polyhedrin promoter from baculovirus), P CMV (immediate early promoter from CMV), P SV40 (early promoter from SV40) and P LTR (5' LTR promoter from HIV1) or the bacterial promoters P BLA (promoter from the TEM-1 β-lactamase gene) and P NPTIII (promoter from the neomycinphosphotransferase III gene). E. coli containing pKKlux was included in both experiments as negative control. The luminescence (Panel A) was measured in triplicate and the columns represent the average of the three measurements with the standard deviation. The lux AB mRNA (Panel B) was measured in duplicate and the columns represent the average of the two measurements.