MMV chip construction and basic operation. (a) Dimensions of an MMV chip. The MMV chip has a dimension of 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm × 0.2 cm and is fabricated with 1024 wells of 0.6-mm diameter and 2-mm depth, giving a volume of 0.5 μL of solution. (b) Usual transfer (Z-mode) of solution. Well-to-well transfer of solution is performed using a silicone/urethane spacer that enables a leak-proof flow of solution from the donor to the acceptor MMV. (c) Schematic representation of initial input of solution into wells (I-mode). A urethane/silicone frame is used to confine the solution to the top surface of the MMV.