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Table 1 Biliverdin production by E. coli (HO1) and E. coli (mHO-1) growing in LB medium supplemented with various carbon sources

From: Scalable production of biliverdin IXα by Escherichia coli

E.coli Strain Carbon Source Conc. % IPTGa Pigmentb
BL21(HO1) D-glucose 1 + pale green
   2 + pale green
   5 + yellow green
  sucrose 1 + brown
  D-mannitol 1 + pale green
   2 + pale green
   5 + green
  D-sorbitol 1 + yellow green
   5 + yellow green
   10 + yellow green
  lactose 1 - pale green
   2.5 - green
   5 - yellow green
   10 - yellow green
  D-mannitol, D-glucose 1,1 + pale green
  sucrose, D-glucose 1,1 + pale green
  D-mannitol, D-sorbitol 2.5, 2.5 + green
  D-mannitol, D-sorbitol 2, 5 + green
  D-mannitol, D-sorbitol 5, 5 + green
  lactose, D-glucose 2, 2 - green
  succinate 5 + pale green
  malate 5 + pale green
  citrate 5 + pale green
  L- glutamate 5 + pale green
  L- glutamate 5 + yellow green
BL21(mHO1) D-glucose 1 + green
  D-mannitol 5 + green
  lactose 2.5 - green
  lactose, D-glucose 2, 2 - green
  1. aIsopropyl-β-thiogalactoside (IPTG), 0.5 mM added (+), or not added (−).
  2. b Biliverdin concentrations were 2 to 4mg L-1 (green), <2 to >0.2 mg L-1 (pale green) and <0.2mg L-1 (yellow green and brown).