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Table 4 Itaconic acid levels among the main three organic acids (itaconic-, citric- and oxalic acid) in batch cultivation using different copper concentrations

From: Enhanced itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger using genetic modification and medium optimization

  Itaconic acidg /L Citric acidg /L Oxalic acidg /L Itaconic acid percentage from the total organic acids
Medium12 - Cu   
108 hrs 0.086 1.774 5.851 10%
144 hrs 1.226 3.323 9.722 9%
168 hrs 1.453 3.857 11.557 9%
Medium12     
108 hrs 1.052 6.975 0.050 13%
144 hrs 1.490 8.877 0.062 14%
168 hrs 1.639 8.923 0.093 15%
Medium12 + Cu     
108 hrs 1.430 5.128 1.262 18%
144 hrs 1.768 6.229 1.453 19%
168 hrs 1.945 6.570 1.473 20%
  1. The levels are averages of the duplicate measurements (g/L) (end concentrations deviate less than 5 %).