Biomass, total lipid and total fatty acid production of R. toruloides in fed-batch cultures. Cells were grown in defined medium with a) glucose and b) glucose, xylose and arabinose (6:55:8) provided as carbon sources in fed-batch cultures with (NH4)2SO4 as nitrogen source (pH 4, 30°C). The C/N during the batch phase for cultures which received no N in the feed was 40, whereas other cultures received the same C/N during batch and feeding phases (open symbols, C/N = 65 or 80, as indicated). Data for batch cultures (no feed) with glucose (70 or 100 g L−1, C/N 65) or glucose, xylose and arabinose (6:55:8, C/N 65) are also shown. Where shown, error bars represent ± SEM for duplicate cultivations. Error bars for biomass measurements include replicate measurements and are sometimes less than the size of the symbol.