Lipid production from glucose, xylose and/or arabinose by R. toruloides in batch culture. Lipid (% DW and total produced), fatty acids (FA, % total lipid), biomass, rate of lipid production and yield of lipid on substrate at the time (indicated in the legend) of maximum total lipid production for R. toruloides growing in defined medium with glucose (black), xylose (light blue) or arabinose (red/white), or mixtures of glucose, xylose and arabinose (GXA) as carbon sources. Carbon was provided at 30 g L−1 (solid), 65–70 g L−1 (glucose, arabinose and GXA) or 100 g L−1 (glucose) at C/N 65 with (NH4)2SO4 as nitrogen source (pH 4, 30°C). The ratio of glucose, xylose and arabinose is given in the legend. The percentage of various fatty acids in the total fatty acids is also shown. Error bars represent ± SEM. Where error bars are not visible for fatty acids as % total SEM was too small to be seen at the scale shown.