Glutamine and glutamate metabolic profiles in batch shake flasks. The extracellular concentration of glutamine with 0 mM, 4 mM and 8 mM glutamine supplementation and ammonium (identical symbols, colored grey) in batch shake flask cultivation (A). The rate of glutamine consumption and ammonium production with varied glutamine concentrations in batch shake flask cultivation (symbols identical to previous, B). The extracellular concentration and rate of consumption of glutamate during batch shake flask cultivation (identical symbols, C and D respectively). Panels A, B, C and D, n = 6.