The effects of glutamine on glucose, lactate and pH in batch shake flasks. The extracellular concentration of glucose with 0 mM, 4 mM and 8 mM glutamine supplementation and lactate (identical symbols, colored grey) in CHO cell batch shake flask cultivation (A). The rates of glucose consumption and lactate production with batch shake flask cultivation at varying glutamine concentrations (symbols identical to previous, B). The extracellular culture pH during shake flask cultivation with 0 mM, 4 mM and 8 mM glutamine supplementation (C). Panels A, B and C, n = 6.