Histological observations. A, Adhesion-free cecal wall from a gel-treated mouse 5 days after the surgery (400×). B, Adhesion-free cecal wall from a gel-treated mouse 7 days after the operation. The defect has been remesothelialized (400×). C, Healed cecal wall defect in a gel-treated mouse 14 days after the operation (400×). D, Healed cecal wall and E, healed abdominal wall in a 25 wt% PECE hydrogel-treated rat (400×). F, Cross-section of an adhesion in a saline-treated rat (100×). CE: cecal mucosa; Me: mesothelial cells; SM: visceral smooth muscle; SK: abdominal wall skeletal muscle.