Efficient display of active lipase LipB52 with a Pichia pastoris cell surface display system and comparison with the LipB52 displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface
© Jiang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 27 March 2007
Accepted: 28 January 2008
Published: 28 January 2008
For industrial bioconversion processes, the utilization of surface-displayed lipase in the form of whole-cell biocatalysts is more advantageous, because the enzymes are displayed on the cell surface spontaneously, regarded as immobilized enzymes.
Two Pichia pastoris cell surface display vectors based on the flocculation functional domain of FLO with its own secretion signal sequence or the α-factor secretion signal sequence were constructed respectively. The lipase gene lipB52 fused with the FLO gene was successfully transformed into Pichia pastoris KM71. The lipase LipB52 was expressed under the control of the AOX1 promoter and displayed on Pichia pastoris KM71 cell surface with the two Pichia pastoris cell surface display vectors. Localization of the displayed LipB52 on the cell surface was confirmed by the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The LipB52 displayed on the Pichia pastoris cell surface exhibited activity toward p-nitrophenol ester with carbon chain length ranging from C10 to C18, and the optimum substrate was p-nitrophenol-caprate (C10), which was consistent with it displayed on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100 cell surface. The hydrolysis activity of lipase LipB52 displayed on Pichia pastoris KM71-pLHJ047 and KM71-pLHJ048 cell surface reached 94 and 91 U/g dry cell, respectively. The optimum temperature of the displayed lipases was 40°C at pH8.0, they retained over 90% activity after incubation at 60°C for 2 hours at pH 7.0, and still retained 85% activity after incubation for 3 hours.
The LipB52 displayed on the Pichia pastoris cell surface exhibited better stability than the lipase LipB52 displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface. The displayed lipases exhibited similar transesterification activity. But the Pichia pastoris dry cell weight per liter (DCW/L) ferment culture was about 5 times than Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lipase displayed on Pichia pastoris are more suitable for whole-cell biocatalysts than that displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface.
Lipases (E.C.184.108.40.206) are esterases able to hydrolyze water-insoluble esters, which have a wide range of potential industrial applications [1–3]. Pseudomonas lipases display special biochemical characteristics differing from those produced by other microorganisms [1, 4–6]. The lipase LipB52 encoded by lipB52 (GenBank accession number AY623009), isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens B52, displayed high level enantioselectivity with (R)-tert-leucinate . For industrial bioconversion processes, the utilization of surface-displayed lipase in the form of whole-cell biocatalysts is more advantageous, because the enzymes are displayed on the cell surface spontaneously, regarded as immobilized enzyme, and can be separated easily. With the recent development of cell-surface display technology, many active enzymes can be genetically immobilized on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface [8, 9], while displaying active enzymes on Pichia pastoris cell surface was rarely reported[10, 11]. In fact, the P. pastoris expression system has gained acceptance as an important host organism, and is common for high level expression of foreign proteins.
In this paper, we have the lipase LipB52 displayed on Pichia pastoris KM71 cell surface with a Pichia pastoris cell surface display system based on the FLO gene encoding a lectin-like cell-wall protein (FLO) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae . FLO is composed of several domains: the secretion signal domain, the flocculation functional domain, the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor attachment signal domain and the membraneanchoring domain [14–16]. The FLO flocculation functional domain, thought to be located near the N-terminus, recognizes and adheres noncovalently to cell-wall components such as α-mannan carbohydrates, causing reversible aggregation of cells into flocs [13, 14, 16]. The 5'-terminus of lipase gene lipB52 was fused to the 3'-terminus of the FLO gene with the secretion signal sequence of FLO or the α-factor secretion signal sequence, and the fused gene was transformed into a heterologous fungal host, Pichia pastoris KM71. The lipase LipB52 was expressed under the control of the AOX1 promoter and displayed on Pichia pastoris KM71 cell surface. Localization of the expressed lipase LipB52 on the cell surface was confirmed by the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Some biochemical characteristics of the lipase LipB52 displayed on Pichia pastoris KM71 cell surface were also analysed and compared with the LipB52 displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100-pLHJ026 cell surface.
Construction of the recombinant plasmids of FLO-lipB52and expression of fusion proteins
Localization of the displayed lipase LipB52
Characterization and comparison of the displayed lipases
Many reports indicated that the active site of Pseudomonas lipase was located at the C-terminal region [17–20], the lipase displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface by its C- terminus was fused to the cell-wall-anchored protein, α-agglutinin, exhibited no activity towards olive oil and a very low enzymatic activity towards p-nitrophenol butyrate . The FLO protein is thought to produce cell adhesion via noncovalent interaction of its flocculation functional domain with the mannan chain of the cell wall. Its C-terminus was used to fuse with the N-terminus of target protein, it was successfully used to display active lipase based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Considering the similarity between the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris and the adhesive ability of the FLO protein, we attempted to utilize the relevant domain in a surface display system based on Pichia pastoris.
We successfully developed a Pichia pastoris surface display system utilizing flocculation functional domain of FLO protein, and had the lipase LipB52 expressed and displayed on Pichia pastoris KM71 cell surface. In the present study, two recombinant plasmids (pLHJ047 and pLHJ048) with the same components except the secretion signal sequences were constructed. The secretion signal sequence in pLHJ048 is the α-factor secretion signal sequence, while the secretion signal sequence in pLHJ047 is the one from FLO. As shown in the results, the signal sequence of FLO exhibits similar effect to α-factor signal sequence in Pichia pastoris. This Pichia pastoris surface display system is also expected to be effective for N-terminal immobilization of target proteins whose catalytic site is near its C-terminus.
Comparison of the properties of the recombinant S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris.
Culture medium for expression
Location of the target gene
DCW/L a /Induction time
YNB-CAA containing glucose or galactose
Cloned in the episomal plasmid
5.6 g/2 days
Integrated into genome
26.3 g/4 days
Integrated into genome
25.6 g/4 days
A Pichia pastoris surface display system utilizing flocculation functional domain of FLO protein was developed, and the activity lipase LipB52 was expressed and displayed on Pichia pastoris KM71 cell surface. The lipase displayed on Pichia pastoris cell surface was more suitable for being used as whole-cell biocatalysts than that displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface.
Strains, vectors, culture media and enzymes
Escherichia coli DH5α, used as the recipient strain for recombinant plasmids, was grown in LB medium (1% tryptone, 0.5% yeast extract, 1%NaCl, pH7.0) at 37°C. The FLO gene was cloned from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 60715 (MATα FLO8 his4 leu2 STA1). The recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100-pLHJ026 was constructed previously, the active lipase LipB52 was displayed on its cell surface. Yeast was grown in complete medium (YPD: 1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, 2% glucose) or selective medium (MD: 1.34% yeast nitrogen base, 4 × 10-5 % biotin, 2% dextrose, 2% agar). BMGY (1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, 100 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6.0, 1.34% YNB, 4 × 10-5 % biotin, 1% glycerol) and BMMY (1% yeast extract, 2% peptone, 100 mM potassium phosphate, pH 6.0, 1.34% YNB, 4 × 10-5 % biotin, 0.5% methanol) were used for the recombinant Pichia pastoris. The Pichia pastoris KM71 and pPIC9K were purchased from Invitrogen Corporation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100-pLHJ026 (recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae displayed lipase LipB52, stored in our laboratory) were grown in YNB-CAA medium (0.67% yeast nitrogen base, 0.5% casamino acids) containing 2% glucose or galactose. The exTaq DNA polymerase, restriction enzymes, T4 DNA ligase and modification enzymes were purchased from TaKaRa Biotechnology (Dalian, China) Co., Ltd.
Nucleic acid manipulation
DNA was purified and manipulated essentially as described by Sambrook et al . DNA was sequenced with the dideoxy chain-termination method by an ABI 3730 automated sequencer from both strands by Invitrogen Biotechnology (Shanghai, China).
Construction of the FLO-lipB52 surface expression vectors for Pichia pastoris
To amplify the FLO gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 60715 chromosomal DNA, the following two oligonucleotides were used as primers: FLOf-Bgl II (5'-acatagatcttatgacaatgcctcatcgctatatgttttt-3') and FLOr-EcoRI (5'-gatgaattcggtgatttgtcctgaagatgatgatgacaaa-3'). Primers LipB52Pf-EcoR I (5'-aaagaattcccaacaaaaagagaggcaacagcaatg-3) and LipB52Pr-Not I (5'-aaagcggccgctccctccccacccttgtcgtcagg-3') were synthesized based on the sequence of lipB52 (GenBank accession number AY623009) and used to amplify lipB52 gene from the plasmid pLHJ018 containing lipB52 . The PCR was performed as following: 95°C 10 min, followed by 30 cycles of amplification (95°C 1 min, 58°C 45 sec and 72°C 1 min) and 72°C 10 min after that. The purified PCR products, FLO and lipB52 gene, were digested with EcoR I, respectively, and ligated with T4 DNA ligase. Then the ligation product was used as the template to amplify the FLO-lipB52 fusion gene with primers FLOf-Bgl II and LipB52Pr-Not I. The FLO-lipB52 PCR product was purified and divided into two parts. One was digested with Bgl II and blunted with T4 DNA polymerase, then digested with Not I and ligated with pPIC9K digested with SnaB I and Not I, which reserved the α-factor secretion signal sequence. The other part was digested with Bgl II and Not I, and ligated with pPIC9K digested with BamH I (Bgl II and BamH I have the same cohesive end) and Not I, which discarded the α-factor secretion signal sequence. The recombinants were screened and identified with restriction enzymes and sequencing.
Pichia pastoristransformation and expression
Electrocompetent cells of Pichia pastoris KM71 were prepared according to the supplier's instruction . 10 μg recombinant plasmid linearized with Sal I was mixed with 80 μl electrocompetent cells, and electroporated by means of pulse discharge (1,500 V, 25 μF, Bio-Rad Gene Pulser) for 5 ms. After pulsing, 1 ml ice-cold 1 M sorbitol was immediately added to the cuvette. Then, 200 μl aliquots were spread on MD plates, and the plates were incubated at 30°C to screen for His+ transformants according to their capacity to grow in the absence of histidine.
To detect the displayed lipase activity, the following manipulation was performed. His+ clones were grown on BMGY plates at 30°C over night, and then transferred onto BMMY plates supplemented with 1% olive oil and 0.002% rhodamine B and induced at 30°C. 150 μl fresh methanol were added in the lid of plates every 24 h to induce the lipase protein expression. The recombinant strains with displayed active lipases were screened by BMMY plates supplemented with olive oil as substrate and rhodamine B as indicator. The recombinant strains were also identified by PCR with primers LipB52Pf-EcoR I and LipB52Pr-Not I.
Scale-up of expression was performed according to the supplier's instruction . The recombinant strains were grown in 100 ml BMGY medium at 30°C, 250 rpm until the culture reached OD600 = 2.0–6.0. The cells were harvested by centrifugation and resuspended at a five-fold concentration in 20 ml BMMY medium to induce protein expression. The cells were incubated for 6 days at 30°C, 250 rpm, and fresh methanol was added to a concentration of 0.5% to maintain induction every 24 h. The cells were harvested by centrifugation for activity assay after washed with PBS (10 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 150 mM sodium chloride). The harvested cells were immediately stored at -20°C over night and then quickly transferred to the lyophilizer (Freezon12, Labconco, USA) for 48 hours.
Detection and characterization of the displayed lipase
Immunostaining was performed as follows. The rabbit polyclonal anti-LipB52 antiserum was raised against the recombinant LipB52 produced by Pichia pastoris KM71-pLHJ018  and used as the primary antibody. The incubated yeast cells were washed with PBS. The cells were incubated with the primary antibody (1:50 diluted with 2% bovine serum albumin) on ice for 30 min with occasional mixing. After the cells had been washed with PBS, the secondary antibody, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories Inc. USA, 1:200 diluted with 2% bovine serum albumin), was added and allowed to react with the cells on ice for 30 min in dark. The cells were then washed with PBS and detected by the confocal laser scanning microscopy (Zeiss LSM 510 META).
The release of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) from p-NP -derivative substrates was measured as described[24, 25]. One unit (U) of hydrolysis activity was defined as the amount of enzyme that released 1 μmol of p-NP per minute under the assay conditions. The transesterification activity was assayed by gas chromatography as described .
Expression of lipase LipB52 displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiaeEBY100-pLHJ026
Inoculate a single EBY100-pLHJ026 colony into 10 ml YNB-CAA containing 2% glucose and grow overnight at 30°C with shaking. After the OD600 = 2–5, centrifuge the cell culture at 8,000 rpm for 5 min at room temperature. Then resuspend the cell pellet in YNB-CAA medium containing 2% galactose to an OD600 of 0.5 to 1. Immediately remove a volume of cells equivalent to 2 OD600 units (e.g. OD600 of 0.5, remove 4 ml) and place on ice. This was used as zero time point. Incubate the cell culture at 20°C with shaking. Assay the cell culture every 12 h to determine the optimal induction time for maximum display. For each time point, read the OD600 and remove a volume of cells that is equivalent to 2 OD600 units. After the maximum display, the cells were harvested by centrifugation for activity assay after washed with PBS and lyophilized.
This work was supported by the following grant: the Ministry of Science and Technology, Basic Research project, No. 2002CCA400; High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program), No. 2006AA020203; Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, No. NCET-04-0411; Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, No. 06XD14006.
- Dharmsthiti S, Kuhasuntisuk B: Lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa LP602: biochemical properties and application for wastewater treatment. J Ind Microbiol Biotech. 1999, 21: 75-80. 10.1038/sj.jim.2900563.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jaeger KE, Dijstra BW, Reetz MT: Bacterial biocatalyst: Molecular biology, three-dimensional structures, and biotechnological applications of lipases. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1999, 56: 315-351. 10.1146/annurev.micro.53.1.315.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Matsumoto T, Ito M, Fukuda H, Kondo A: Enantioselective transesterification using lipase-displaying yeast whole-cell biocatalyst. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004, 64: 481-485. 10.1007/s00253-003-1486-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Amada K, Haruki M, Imanaka T, Morikawa M, Kanaya S: Overproduction in Escherichia coli, purification and characterization of a family I.3 lipase from Pseudomonas sp. MIS38. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000, 1478: 201-210.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Beven CA, Dieckelmann M, Beacham IR: A strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens with two lipase-encoding genes, one of which possibly encodes cytoplasmic lipolytic activity. J Appl Microbiol. 2001, 90: 979-987. 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01333.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kojima Y, Kobayashi M, Shimizu S: A Novel lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens HU380: gene cloning, overproduction, renaturation-activation, two-step purification, and characterization. J Biosci Bioeng. 2003, 96: 242-249.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jiang Z, Zheng Y, Luo Y, Wang G, Wang H, Ma Y, Wei D: Cloning and expression of a novel lipase gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens B52. Mol Biotechnol. 2005, 31: 095-102. 10.1385/MB:31:2:095.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Matsumoto T, Fukuda H, Ueda M, Tanaka A, Kondo A: Construction of yeast strains with high cell surface lipase activity by using novel display systems based on the FLO flocculation functional domain. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002, 68: 4517-4522. 10.1128/AEM.68.9.4517-4522.2002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Washida M, Takahashi S, Ueda M, Tanaka A: Spacer-mediated display of active lipase on the yeast cell surface. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001, 56: 681-686. 10.1007/s002530100718.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tanino Takanori, Fukuda Hideki, Kondo Ahihiko: Construction of a Pichia pastoris Cell-Surface Display System Using Flo1p Anchor System. Biotechnol Prog. 2006, 22: 989-993. 10.1021/bp060133+.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ren Ren, Jiang Zhengbing, Liu Meiyun, Tao Xingyi, Ma Yushu, Wei Dongzhi: Display of adenoregulin with a novel Pichia pastoris cell surface display system. Molecular Biotechnology. 2007, 35: 103-108. 10.1007/BF02686102.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cereghino Joan Lin, Cregg James: Heterologous protein expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 2000, 24: 45-66. 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2000.tb00532.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bony M, Thines-Sempoux D, Barre P, Blondin B: Localization and cell surface anchoring of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculation protein FLO. J Bacteriol. 1997, 179: 4929-4936.Google Scholar
- Miki BL, Poon NH, James AP, Seligy VL: Possible mechanism for flocculation interactions governed by gene FLO1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1982, 150: 878-889.Google Scholar
- Teunissen A, Holub E, Van Der Hucht J, Van Den Bergh JA, Steensma HY: Sequence of the open reading frame of the FLO1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 1993, 9: 423-427. 10.1002/yea.320090413.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Watari J, Takata Y, Ogawa M, Sahara H, Koshino S, Onnela ML, Airaksinen U, Jaatinen R, Penttila M, Keranen S: Molecular cloning and analysis of the yeast flocculation gene FLO1. Yeast. 1994, 10: 211-225. 10.1002/yea.320100208.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee J, Boyapati G, Song K, Rhee S, Kim C: Cloning and sequence analysis of the estA gene encoding enzyme for producing (R)-beta-acetylmercaptoisobutyric acid from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1001. J Biosci Bioeng. 2000, 90: 684-687. 10.1263/jbb.90.684.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee J, Suh SW, Shin S: Computational studies of essential dynamics of Pseudomonas cepacia lipase. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2000, 18: 297-309.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nardini M, Lang DA, Liebeton K, Jaeger KE, Dijkstra BW: Crystal structure of pseudomonas aeruginosa lipase in the open conformation. The prototype for family I.1 of bacterial lipases. J Biol Chem. 2000, 275: 31219-31225. 10.1074/jbc.M003903200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Omori K, Idei A, Akatsuka H: Serratia ATP-binding cassette protein exporter, Lip, recognizes a protein region upstream of the C terminus for specific secretion. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276: 27111-27119. 10.1074/jbc.M101410200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schreuder MP, Mooren AT, Toschka HY, Verrips CT, Klis FM: Immobilizing proteins on the surface of yeast cells. Trends Biotechnol. 1996, 14: 115-120. 10.1016/0167-7799(96)10017-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sambrook J, Fitsch EF, Maniatis T: Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 1989, Cold Spring Harbor, Cold Spring Harbor PressGoogle Scholar
- Invitrogen: A manual of methods for expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris. Catalog no. K1710-01
- Maurich V, Zacchigna M: p-Nitrophenyl laurate: a substrate for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of lipase activity. J Chromatogr. 1991, 566: 453-459. 10.1016/0378-4347(91)80262-B.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Prim N, Blanco A, Martý'nez J, Pastor FIJ, Diaz P: est A, a gene coding for a cell-bound esterase from Paenibacillus sp. BP-23, is a new member of the bacterial subclass of type B carboxylesterases. Res Microbiol. 2000, 151: 303-312. 10.1016/S0923-2508(00)00150-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Luo Y, Zheng Y, Jiang Z, Ma Y, Wei D: A novel psychrophilic lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens with unique property in chiral resolution and biodiesel production via transesterification. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006, 73 (2): 349-355. 10.1007/s00253-006-0478-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.